The Art of the Ayyubid Period (ca. 1171–1260)

See works of art
  • Ceramic Lantern
  • Ewer with inscription, horsemen, and vegetal decoration
  • Panel with Inscription
  • Pyxis depicting Christs Entry into Jerusalem
  • Double-sided Tombstone

Works of Art (6)


The Ayyubid dynasty came to power under the leadership of the Kurdish Zengid general Salah al-Din (r. 1169–93), known in Europe as Saladin. After repulsing a Crusader army that had reached the gates of Fatimid Cairo and occupying Egypt on behalf of the Zengids (1160s), Salah al-Din declared the Fatimid caliphate to be at its end, and established the Ayyubid sultanate (1171). Soon thereafter, Salah al-Din also gained control over Yemen (1174) and Syria (1180s). The conflict with the Crusaders continued throughout the Ayyubid period; Jerusalem was captured by the Muslims in 1187, then, following a failed treaty, ceded until 1244, when the city was retaken for good. The sultanate depended on mamluks (slave soldiers) for its military organization, yet the end of the dynasty in 1250 was largely caused by Turkic mamluks themselves, who overthrew the last Ayyubid sultan in Egypt, al-Malik al-Ashraf (r. 1249–50) and founded the Mamluk sultanate (1250–1517).

In the arts, the Ayyubids are known especially for their works in inlaid metalwork and ceramics, particularly luster- and underglaze-painted wares. Some objects from this period, including a group of inlaid metalwork pieces, also have Christian scenes. Signatures of artists on refined and prized brass works inlaid with silver seem to indicate that the craftsmen were from Mosul (in present-day Iraq) and had fled from the approaching Mongol armies. In the case of ceramics produced in Syria, the influence of Seljuq Iran is prevalent. Among other arts, enameled glass rose to excellence in this period and carved wood was also esteemed by Ayyubid patrons. Techniques established and developed during this time formed the foundation of the arts in the Mamluk period.

The Ayyubids were also vigorous builders. Their generous patronage led to tremendous architectural activity in Egypt and especially in Syria, and their local courts revived the cities of Damascus and Aleppo. The outstanding secular architecture from this period includes the fortified citadels of Cairo (1187) and Aleppo (early thirteenth century). Meanwhile, the establishment of madrasas, higher institutions for religious learning, such as the Zahiriya (1219) in Aleppo and that of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1243) in Cairo, exemplify the Ayyubid interest in Sunni education after the Shi’i interlude in the region under the Fatimids. Furthermore, the Madrasa al-Sahiba in Damascus (1233), built by Salah al-Din’s sister Rabia Khatun, as well as the Mausoleum of Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (1250), commissioned by his wife Shajarat al-Durr, reflects the importance of women as patrons of architecture under the Ayyubids. In terms of commemorative buildings and pious architectural initiatives, the Mausoleum of Imam al-Shafi’i (1211) and the Tomb of the ‘Abbasid Caliphs (1242–43) in Cairo are especially noteworthy.

Suzan Yalman
Department of Education, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

based on original work by

Linda Komaroff

October 2001


Yalman, Suzan. Based on original work by Linda Komaroff. “The Art of the Ayyubid Period (ca. 1171–1260).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2001)

Further Reading

Behrens-Abouseif, Doris "Architecture of the Ayyubid Period." In her Islamic Architecture in Cairo: An Introduction, pp. 78–93.. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1989.

Raby, Julian, ed. The Art of Syria and the Jazira, 1100–1250. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Additional Essays by Suzan Yalman

Additional Essays by Linda Komaroff