Hinduism and Buddhism fundamentally shape the cultures of the Himalayas, integrating indigenous elements with those imported directly from India. This period is characterized by the active patronage of Buddhism in Tibet under Khri-srong-Ide-btsan (r. ca. 750–97) and contact of Tibetan artists with Buddhist painting traditions in Central Asia (including Khotan and Dunhuang). Buddhism is firmly established in the mid-ninth century in what is now Bhutan, under Tibetan influence. During the ninth century, Buddhism is persecuted in Tibet, but flourishes under state patronage from the eleventh century. Nepal is ruled by the Licchavi family, heralding the profound influence of Indian culture. Hinduism and Buddhism are patronized as Licchavi power wanes around 750, followed by a period of transition about which little is known.