The religion that we now call Hinduism begins to take recognizable shape in this period, and is patronized by the dynamic regional kingdoms—Pallava, Pandya, Chalukya, and Chola—that rise up in the wake of Gupta power. Temples are the focal point of both religious and social life, as regional rulers construct massive temple complexes that attest to the divine origins of their power on earth. Buddhism and Jainism also thrive. Tamil, used as a literary language from the beginning of the first millennium, is the primary medium of the early bhakti (devotional) poets of the south. These poets represent the beginnings of a powerful pan-Indian social and cultural orientation that transforms Indian religions into the next millennium.