Some of the most dramatic stone architectural monuments in eastern and southern Africa were produced during the first half of the second millennium A.D. Two of these, Lalibela in present-day Ethiopia and Great Zimbabwe, have been marked for preservation and included on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. The stone-cut churches of Lalibela may be the oldest preserved architectural structures on the continent and remain a site of work, study, and worship for an active religious community who believe Lalibela to be the new Jerusalem. The churches are also popular pilgrimage sites for Coptic priests and lay worshippers. Stone ruins today mark the location of several capital cities in medieval southern Africa. Best known among these is Great Zimbabwe, whose Great Enclosure is the largest ancient structure in sub-Saharan Africa. Known especially for their massive stone structures, these cities also produced distinctive pottery, soapstone carving, and ivory work and developed extensive gold and copper mining industries.