The Thai kingdom, centered on the capital city of Ayudhya, is a dominant polity in mainland Southeast Asia after the defeat of the Cambodian Khmer empire in 1431. Sculptures of Buddhas, walking and sitting, made of bronze and brass, are widely produced. A thriving ceramic industry flourishes at kilns such as those of Sukhothai and Si Satchanalai in the central region, and smaller centers such as Kalong and Phan in the north. Ceramics are also produced in some number in Vietnam from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. Established around 1400, the town of Malacca on the Malay Peninsula plays an important role in the spice trade linking the mainland with Indonesia, the Spice Islands, China, India, West Asia, Portugal, and other European nations. The spread of Islam on the Malay Peninsula, in Indonesia, and other islands reflects the prevalence of Muslims in this trade. Textiles are among the dominant artworks of the period. In addition, metalwork—including pieces made of gold, small bronze and terracotta figures, and clay architectural decorations—are made for domestic consumption throughout Southeast Asia.