A period of great change for the South Asian subcontinent. In the north, the declining Delhi Sultanate gives way to the Mughals, who establish the largest empire ever seen on the subcontinent. The arts flourish under Mughal patronage as a unique “Mughal style” emerges in painting and architecture, a synthesis of Indian and imported Persian influences. The south will see the rise and fall of the last great Hindu empire at Vijayanagar. The arrival of the Portuguese marks the beginning of European influence in the subcontinent, which will culminate in British rule in subsequent centuries.