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Self-Portrait with Two Pupils, Marie Gabrielle Capet (1761–1818) and Marie Marguerite Carreaux de Rosemond (died 1788)

Adélaïde Labille-Guiard (French, Paris 1749–1803 Paris)

Date:
1785
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
83 x 59 1/2 in. (210.8 x 151.1 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Gift of Julia A. Berwind, 1953
Accession Number:
53.225.5
  • Gallery Label

    Adélaïde Labille-Guiard was apprenticed to a miniaturist and later, in 1769, studied pastel with Maurice Quentin de La Tour. The rich palette and fine detail reflect her earlier training. In 1783, when she and Vigée Le Brun were admitted to the French Académie Royale, the number of women artists eligible for membership was limited to four, and this canvas has been interpreted as a propaganda piece, arguing for the place of women in the academy. Labille-Guiard sympathized with the Revolution and, unlike Vigée Le Brun, remained in France throughout her life.

  • Catalogue Entry

    Studying first with François Élie Vincent (1708–1790), a miniaturist whose Paris studio was in the same street as her father's shop, Adélaïde Labille embarked upon her career before she was twenty. In 1769 she married Nicolas Guiard, from whom she separated in 1779. She learned the techniques of pastel from Maurice Quentin de La Tour (1704–1788), and then in 1776 entered the studio of her childhood friend François André Vincent (1746–1816), François Élie's son, to study oil painting. Labille-Guiard was exclusively a portraitist (then considered an appropriate genre for a woman); she was a fine painter in oils but may have preferred the pastel medium. Together with Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun (1755–1842), she was admitted in 1783 to full membership in the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture and she exhibited at least ten pastels at the Salon that year. Later, she was taken up by the Mesdames de France, the elderly maiden aunts of Louis XVI (1754–1793) who became her most important patrons. However, Labille-Guiard was not ambitious for a society clientele. She was instead politically motivated and devoted herself to the teaching and advancement of women artists, seeking equal rights for them at the Académie. She stayed in France throughout the Revolution and secured commissions from several of its leading figures. In 1800, she married the painter Vincent.

    Labille-Guiard exhibited this work at the Salon of 1785. A contemporary critic called it not only her most beautiful portrait, but one of the finest paintings at the Salon that year. She depicts herself at work in her atelier, palette in hand, box of paints to her right, a porte-crayon and a scroll of paper or canvas on the stool in the foreground. Her beautiful dress and beribboned straw hat are rich in color and complex in execution; she describes the reflection of the blue fabric in the parquet at her feet. Likewise, the inclusion of her pupils offers Labille-Guiard the opportunity to wrestle with the complexities of composition. Their relationship and the fall of light over their faces show her skill as a painter. The Museum also owns a "trois crayons" study in chalk for the heads of these pupils (1998.186), in which Labille-Guiard experiments with proximity and light.

    Marie Gabrielle Capet was Labille-Guiard's favorite student. A miniaturist and pastel portraitist in her own right, she lived with Labille-Guiard before and after the artist's marriage to Vincent, and continued to care for him after Labille-Guiard's death.

    [2010]

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed and dated (left, on easel): Labille fme Guiard / 1785.

  • Provenance

    the artist, Paris (1785–d. 1803; posthumous inv., April 1803); her second husband, the painter François André Vincent, Paris (1803–d. 1816); his brother-in-law, Marie François Griois, Paris (1816–d. 1824); Auguste François Griois, Paris (1824–at least 1848); his widow, Virginie Barry, Madame Auguste François Griois, Paris (until d. 1878; offered to the Louvre and declined); their son, Auguste Griois, Paris (from 1878); his widow, Madame Auguste Griois, Paris (until 1905; sold to Gimpel & Wildenstein); [Gimpel & Wildenstein, Paris, 1905–18; sold for $98,000 to Berwind]; Edward J. Berwind, The Elms, Newport, R.I. (1918–d. 1936); his sister, Julia A. Berwind, The Elms (1936–53)

  • Exhibition History

    Paris. Salon. 1785, no. 101 (as "Un Tableau (Portrait) de trois Figures en pied, représentant une femme occupée à peindre & deux Élèves la regardant. 6 pieds 6 pouces, sur 4 pieds 8 pouces").

    Paris. Galerie Bonne-Nouvelle. "Association des artistes: Ouvrages de peinture, sculpture et architecture exposés à la Galerie Bonne-Nouvelle, au profit de la caisse des secours et pensions de l'association, troisième année," January 1848, no. 53 (as "Portrait de l'auteur, de Mme Bervic et de Mlle Capet [1785]," by Madame Guiard-Vincent, lent by M. Griois).

    Paris. Jeu de Paume. "Cent portraits de femmes," April 23–July 1, 1909, no. 70 (as "Portrait de Mme Labille-Guiard et de deux de ses élèves, Mlles Capet et Rosemond").

    Berlin. Königliche Akademie der Künste. "Ausstellung von Werken Französischer Kunst des XVIII. Jahrhunderts," January 26–March 6, 1910, no. 85 (as "Die Künstlerin und ihre Schülerinnen Marie Capet und Rosemond," lent by Wildenstein).

    London. Royal Academy of Arts. "French Art: 1200–1900," January 4–March 12, 1932, no. 283 (lent by E. J. Berwind) [commemorative catalogue no. 182].

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Portrait of the Artist," January 18–March 7, 1972, no. 13.

    Paris. Grand Palais. "De David à Delacroix: La peinture française de 1774 à 1830," November 16, 1974–February 3, 1975, no. 112.

    Detroit Institute of Arts. "French Painting 1774–1830: The Age of Revolution," March 5–May 4, 1975, no. 112.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "French Painting 1774–1830: The Age of Revolution," June 12–September 7, 1975, no. 112.

    Washington. National Gallery of Art. "The Eye of Th: Jefferson," June 5–September 6, 1976, no. 241.

    New York. Costume Institute. "Vanity Fair," December 15, 1977–September 4, 1978, not in catalogue.

  • References

    "Exposition des tableaux au Louvre." Année litteraire 8 (1785) [transcribed in Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 349, p. 796], notes that this painting met with almost universal approval and is not only Labille-Guiard's most beautiful portrait, but one of the most accomplished of the Salon; reports that Madame Adélaïde offered to buy it for 10,000 livres.

    [anonymous male writer]. Avis important d'une femme sur le sallon de 1785, par Madame E.A.R.T.L.A.D.C.S., dédié aux femmes. Paris, 1785, pp. 28–29 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 344], hails this self-portrait as bringing together the conventions of history painting with those of genre; notes that she hears repeatedly, based on the firmness of execution, decisiveness of tone, etc., that "this woman [the artist] is a man". . . "as if my sex were to be eternally condemned to mediocrity . . .".

    Louis Petit de Bachaumont. Mémoires secrets pour servir à l'histoire de la République des Lettres en France 30 (1785), pp. 183–84; reprinted in B. Fort, "Les Salons des 'Mémoires secrets,' 1767–1787," Paris, 1999, p. 297, fig. 53], as a "tableau historié," her most striking painting and generally admired.

    Deuxième promenade de critès au sallon. London, 1785, pp. 36–37 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 334], comments on the skill of the artist and the charms of the sitters.

    Discours sur l'origine, les progrès et l'état actuel de la peinture en France. . . Paris, 1785, p. 39 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 325].

    Impromptu sur le sallon des tableaux exposés au Louvre en 1785. Dialogue en vers. London, 1785, pp. 9–10 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 338].

    Inscriptions pour mettre au bas de différens tableaux exposés au Sallon du Louvre, en 1785. London, 1785, p. 7 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 343].

    Journal de Paris (September 17, 1785) [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14. no. 351, pp. 830–31; see Ref. Passez 1973 for date], admires it as much for the simple and graceful composition as for the finesse of tone.

    "Exposition des tableaux au sallon du Louvre, 1785." Journal général de France (1785) [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 363, pp. 922–23].

    "Observations sur le sallon de 1785." Journal général de France (1785), p. 19 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 339, p. 549], as the most successful of the artist's works at the 1785 Salon; presents Labille-Guiard and Vigée Le Brun as rivals.

    Jugement d'un musicien sur le salon de peinture de 1785. Amsterdam, 1785, p. 16 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 341], notes that Labille-Guiard rivals Vigée with several well-composed and well-painted portraits, above all this one.

    Le frondeur ou dialogues sur le sallon. 1785, pp. 38–39 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 329].

    Le peintre anglais au salon de peintures, exposées au Louvre en l'année 1785. 1785, p. 24 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 327], remarks that it is astonishingly realistic and that the fabrics are well painted.

    L'espion des peintures de l'académie royale. 1785, p. 36 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 337], comments on the attentive reserve of Labille's pupils and admires the composition.

    Lettre à Émilie, sur quelques tableaux du Sallon. 1785, p. 6 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 50, no. 1351].

    "Exposition des tableaux au Salon du Louvre." Mercure de France (October 1, 1785) [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 348, pp. 738, 757–58; see Ref. Passez 1973 for date], believes this painting places Labille-Guiard among the best portraitists of the Salon; comments on the strides she has made, noting that this work does not resemble any previously shown by the artist, and is superior to all the other pictures exhibited by her this year.

    Minos au sallon, ou la gazette infernale, par M. L. B. D. B. Gattières, 1785, p. 22 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 345].

    Observations critiques sur les tableaux du sallon, de l'année 1785. Paris, 1785, p. 19 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 326].

    Observations de M. le marquis de S . . . capitaine de cavalerie, sur quelques tableaux exposés cette année au Salon. 1785 [transcribed in Collection Deloynes, vol. 50, no. 1345, pp. 293–94], calls it inferior to Vestier's portrait of his daughter at an easel, but not without merit; finds that the heads of the standing figures are not set off sufficiently, while the body of the painter stands out too much.

    J. B. Pujoulx. Figaro au sallon de peinture, pièce épisodi-critique, en prose et en vaudevilles. Rome, 1785, p. 20 [Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 330; by J. B. Pujoulx according to Montaiglon].

    Vers à Madame Guyard sur le sallon de 1785. 1785 [transcribed in Collection Deloynes, vol. 14, no. 362, p. 899].

    J. Lebreton. "Notice nécrologique sur Madame Vincent née Labille." Nouvelles des arts 2 (1803), p. 5 [see Ref. Brejon de Lavergnée 1976].

    Jules Renouvier. Histoire de l'art pendant la Révolution. Paris, 1863, p. 360, states that during the years IV (1795–96), VI (1797–98), and VIII (1799–1800) of the Revolution, Labille-Guiard exhibited numerous portraits, including this one.

    Frédéric Reiset. Notice des dessins, cartons, pastels, miniatures et émaux exposés . . . au Musée Impérial du Louvre. Paris, 1869, p. 326.

    Spire Blondel. L'art pendant la Révolution. Paris, 1887, p. 58.

    G. de Leris. "Les femmes à l'Académie de Peinture." L'art 45 (1888), p. 130.

    Henri Bouchot. "Le portrait-miniature en France." Gazette des beaux-arts, 3rd ser., 11 (1894), p. 246.

    Baron Roger Portalis. "Adélaïde Labille-Guiard (1749–1803)." Gazette des beaux-arts 27 (1902), pp. 100–103, 107, ill. (engraving by Dujardin), as Labille-Guiard's most important painting; discusses the provenance and provides information about Marie-Gabrielle Capet and Mademoiselle Carreaux de Rosemond.

    Clara Erskine Clement. Women in the Fine Arts: From the Seventh Century B.C. to the Twentieth Century A.D. Boston, 1904, p. 202.

    Henri Bouchot. La miniature française, 1750–1825. 2, Paris, 1907, p. 62.

    Pierre de Nolhac. Madame Vigée-Le Brun, peintre de la reine Marie-Antoinette, 1755–1842. Paris, 1908, p. 54, quotes the "Journal général de France," in which our painting is mentioned in a discussion of the relative merits of Labille-Guiard and Vigée Le Brun.

    G. Brière. "Catalogue critique des oeuvres d'artistes français réunies à l'exposition de cent portraits de femmes du XVIIIe siècle." Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de l'Art Français (1909), pp. 130–31, no. 70.

    Armand Dayot. "Les peintres de la femme au XVIIIe siècle, école française." L'art et les artistes 9 (April–September 1909), p. 73.

    P.-André Lemoisne. "Les cent portraits de femmes." Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 25 (June 1909), pp. 411–12, ill., admires the vigor of the drawing and the fabrics and accessories, but finds the figures heavy.

    André Pératé. "Notes on the Portrait Exhibition in Paris–II." Burlington Magazine 15 (July 1909), p. 212.

    Charles Saunier. "Exposition de cent portraits de femmes des écoles anglaise et française du XVIIe siècle." Les arts 8, no. 91 (July 1909), ill. p. 17.

    Armand Dayot and Claude Phillips. Maîtres du XVIIIe siècle: Cents portraits de femmes des écoles anglaise et française. Paris, 1910, p. 70, ill., note that it appears in Martini's engraving of the 1785 Salon; provide provenance information.

    Louis Réau. L'art français aux États-Unis. Paris, 1926, p. 142.

    Georg Biermann. "Ein Doppelbildnis der Mme Labille-Guiard." Der Cicerone 19 (1927), p. 8.

    Charles Oulmont. Les femmes peintres du XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1928, p. 63, pl. 41.

    Hans Vollmer in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. 22, Leipzig, 1928, p. 168, as in the Berwind collection.

    Esther Singleton. Old World Masters in New World Collections. New York, 1929, pp. 324–26, ill.

    Georges Wildenstein. "Paintings from America in the French Exhibition." The Fine Arts 18 (January 1932), pp. 24, 54, ill.

    Georges Wildenstein. "L'exposition de l'art français à Londres: Le XVIIIe siècle." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 7 (1932), fig. 8.

    Charles Sterling in Commemorative Catalogue of French Art, 1200–1900: Royal Academy of Arts, London. Exh. cat., Royal Academy of Arts. London, 1933, pp. 49–50, no. 182.

    comte Arnauld Doria. Gabrielle Capet. Paris, 1934, pp. 5, 15, 88, no. 4, ill. (frontispiece), identifies the bust as Pajou's portrait of the artist's father and the statue as a vestal virgin.

    Paul Ratouis de Limay. Le pastel en France au XVIIIème siècle. Paris, 1946, p. 105, quotes from a letter in the "Correspondance générale de la Maison du Roi" of November 8, 1785 in which the writer observes that in spite of the success of this painting, the artist has little money and few commissions.

    Michel Florisoone. La peinture française: Le dix-huitième siècle. Paris, 1948, pp. 116, 129, pl. 118.

    Yvon Bizardel. "Les académiciennes au XVIIIe siècle." Le jardin des arts no. 31 (May 1957), ill. p. 439.

    "Ninety-first Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year 1960–1961." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20 (October 1961), ill. p. 44.

    "Nouvelles acquisitions dans les musées durant l'année 1961." La chronique des arts (supplement of the Gazette des beaux-arts) no. 1118 (March 1962), fig. 4.

    Elizabeth E. Gardner. "Four French Paintings from the Berwind Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20 (May 1962), pp. 265, 268–70, ill. (frontispiece).

    René Gimpel. Diary of an Art Dealer. English ed. New York, 1966, p. 33, mentions it under June 10, 1918 as sold to E. J. Berwind for $18,000.

    James Laver. "Fashion, Art, and Beauty." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 26 (November 1967), ill. p. 124.

    Anne-Marie Passez. Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, 1749–1803: Biographie et catalogue raisonné de son oeuvre. Paris, 1973, pp. 19, 26–27, 48–49, 154–59, 308, 313–14, no. 62, pl. 49, cites critical reaction to this picture in 1785; reproduces a painted study for the figure of the artist (no. 61, pl. 48), mentions an engraving after the picture by H. Valentin, and reproduces an engraving by Bornet after Martini, in which it can be seen installed in the 1785 Salon (fig. 2); publishes correspondence from 1878 between the Louvre and the Griois family, in which the Louvre refused it because it was not of sufficient merit.

    Philip Conisbee. "Adélaïde Labille-Guiard: Biographie et catalogue raisonné de son oeuvre. By Anne Marie Passez." Burlington Magazine 117 (March 1975), p. 181.

    Hugo Munsterberg. A History of Women Artists. New York, 1975, pp. 40–41, ill. (overall and detail on title page).

    Pierre Rosenberg in French Painting, 1774–1830: The Age of Revolution. Exh. cat., Detroit Institute of Arts. Detroit, 1975, pp. 517–18, 558, no. 112, ill. p. 75 [French ed., "De David à Delacroix: La peinture française de 1774 à 1830, Paris, 1975, pp. 512–13, no. 112, pl. 31], as "the most ambitious and most nearly perfect painting of a very talented and sophisticated artist"; notes that in a 1787 Salon livret [La Plume du Coq de Micille . . .not legible in the Collection Deloynes microfiche] Jean Laurent Mosnier is advised, in reference to his "Portrait of the Artist in his Studio", "not to make too just a counterpart to Mme Guiard's painting".

    Arnauld Brejon de Lavergnée in The Eye of Th. Jefferson. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1976, pp. 154–59, 313–14, 371, no. 241, ill.

    Ann Sutherland Harris and Linda Nochlin in Women Artists: 1550–1950. Exh. cat., Los Angeles County Museum of Art. New York, 1976, pp. 185–86, 195, claims that the inclusion of the artist's pupils was a way of symbolically circumventing the small quota of four women allowed as members of the Academy and believes this point was not lost on Salon spectators.

    Karen Petersen and J.J. Wilson. Women Artists: Recognition and Reappraisal from the Early Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. New York, 1976, pp. 58–59, ill.

    Donna G. Bachmann and Sherry Piland. Women Artists: An Historical, Contemporary and Feminist Bibliography. Metuchen, N.J., 1978, ill. p. 122.

    Elsa Honig Fine. Women & Art: A History of Women Painters and Sculptors from the Renaissance to the 20th Century. Montclair, N.J., 1978, p. 48, fig. 3-4.

    Germaine Greer. The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Work. New York, 1979, pp. 267–69, ill.

    Ann Sutherland Harris. "Review of Anne Marie Passez, Adelaide Labille-Guiard, Paris, 1973." Art Bulletin 62 (September 1980), p. 495.

    Christine Havice. "In a Class by Herself: 19th Century Images of the Woman Artist as Student." Woman's Art Journal 2 (Spring/Summer 1981), pp. 35–36.

    Rozsika Parker and Griselda Pollock. Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology. New York, 1981, p. 33, fig. 21.

    Eric M. Zafran. The Rococo Age: French Masterpieces of the Eighteenth Century. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art. Atlanta, 1983, p. 93.

    Danielle Rice. "Adélaïde Labille-Guiard: Biographie et catalogue raisonné de son oeuvre, by Anne Marie Passez." Woman's Art Journal 6, no. 2 (1985–86), p. 55, rejects Passez's identification of no. 61 in her catalogue raisonné as an autograph study and considers it a copy.

    Hugo Douwes Dekker. "Adelaïde Labille-Guiard, 1749–1803: Tegen wil en dank rivale van Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, 1755–1842." Tableau 8 (February 1986), ill. p. 52.

    Edith Krull. Women in Art. London, 1986, pp. 40–41, ill. (color).

    Joseph Baillio. The Winds of Revolution. Exh. cat., Wildenstein. New York, 1989, p. 40.

    Jean-François Heim, Claire Béraud, and Philippe Heim. Les salons de peinture de la Révolution française, 1789–1799. Paris, 1989, ill. p. 18.

    Marie-Jo Bonnet. "La révolution d'Adélaïde Labille-Guiard et Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, ou deux femmes peintres en quête d'un espace dans la société." Les femmes et la Révolution française. 2, Toulouse, 1990, pp. 338, 340, ill. p. 339 (perspectival sketch) and unnumbered pl.

    Wendy Slatkin. Women Artists in History: From Antiquity to the 20th Century. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1990, pp. 88–89, ill., as "a public introduction of the aspiring painters," Capet and Carreaux de Rosemond; notes that Labille-Guiard faced financial difficulties in 1785, and her aristocratic dress and coiffure is thus "an appeal to potential aristocratic patrons".

    Isabel Schulz. Künstlerinnen: Leben · Werk · Rezeption. Hamburg, 1991, pp. 75, 77, colorpl. 23.

    Susan Hood. "Re-Reading Constance Mayer's 'Full-length Portrait of a Father and His Daughter' (1801)." Southeast College Art Conference Review 12, no. 2 (1992), p. 85, fig. 4, compares this painting with Mayer's self-portrait with her father, exhibited at the Salon of 1801.

    José-Luis de Los Llanos. Fragonard et le dessin français au XVIIIe siècle dans les collections du Petit Palais. Exh. cat., Petit Palais. Paris, 1992, p. 99, ill.

    Aileen Ribeiro. The Art of Dress: Fashion in England and France 1750 to 1820. New Haven, 1995, p. 14, colorpl. 18, ill. in color on dust jacket and frontispiece.

    Marie H. Trope-Podell. "'Portraits historiés' et portraits collectifs dans la critique française du XVIIIe siècle." Revue de l'art no. 109 (1995), pp. 42–43, fig. 2.

    Michael Kimmelman. "At the Met with Leon Golub and Nancy Spero." New York Times (January 5, 1996), p. C5, ill., Nancy Spero observes that "normally I wouldn't react to a work of this period, considering my esthetic, but I saw a woman painting, looking beautifully, perfectly dressed, not a spot of paint on her, with these two women assistants, and I was immediately drawn to the picture. We are all looking for a heritage. It may be narrow to think this way, but artists do have a gender, they come from a milieu and it helps to recognize that".

    Kathleen Nicholson in The Dictionary of Art. 18, New York, 1996, p. 576, ill.

    Mary D. Sheriff. The Exceptional Woman: Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun and the Cultural Politics of Art. Chicago, 1996, p. 187, fig. 26.

    Vivian P. Cameron in Dictionary of Women Artists. London, 1997, vol. 2, p. 815, suggests this work was inspired by Vigée-Lebrun's "Self-Portrait with a Straw Hat".

    James David Draper in Augustin Pajou: Royal Sculptor, 1730–1809. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1997, p. 259, fig. 165 (detail).

    Frances Borzello. Seeing Ourselves: Women's Self-Portraits. New York, 1998, p. 82, ill. and frontispiece (color detail), comments that the bust of Labille-Guiard's father is "the only male presence in this painting filled with female pride and energy"; mentions that Jean Laurent Mosnier's "Portrait of the Artist in His Studio," exhibited in 1787, follows the same format.

    Gen Doy. Women and Visual Culture in Nineteenth–Century France. London, 1998, pp. 52, 142–43, discusses the text "Avis important d'une femme sur le sallon de 1785".

    Emma Barker. "Women Artists and the French Academy: Vigée-Lebrun in the 1780s." Gender and Art. New Haven, 1999, p. 117, pl. 84.

    Renate Berger in Zwischen Ideal und Wirklichkeit: Künstlerinnen der Goethe-Zeit zwischen 1750 und 1850. Exh. cat., Schlossmuseum, Gotha. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany, 1999, pp. 17, 27, fig. 5.

    Thomas W. Gaehtgens. "Eine gemalte Künstlergenealogie zu Marie-Gabrielle Capets Atelierszene in der Münchener Neuen Pinakothek." Niederdeutsche Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte 38 (1999), p. 214, fig. 4, believes the composition of Marie-Gabrielle Capet's "Atelier Scene" of 1808 is indebted to our picture.

    Perrin Stein in Perrin Stein and Mary Tavener Holmes. Eighteenth-Century French Drawings in New York Collections. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1999, pp. 188–90 n. 3, ill., relates it to the artist's study for the heads of the young women (no. 82, 1998.186), made "to explore the nuances of light and cast shadow".

    Laura Elizabeth Auricchio. "Portraits of Impropriety: Adélaïde Labille-Guiard and the Careers of Professional Women Artists in Late Eighteenth-Century Paris." PhD diss., Columbia University, 2000, pp. 2–3, 7–8, 130–57, 230, fig. 2, as "an unusually versatile advertising vehicle" and a descendant of Velázquez's "Las Meninas".

    Frances Borzello. A World of Our Own: Women as Artists Since the Renaissance. New York, 2000, pp. 88–89, ill.

    Liana De Girolami Cheney, Alicia Craig Faxon, and Kathleen Lucey Russo. Self-Portraits by Women Painters. Aldershot, England, 2000, pp. 123–24, 208–9, colorpl. XXII.

    Elizabeth E. Guffey. Drawing an Elusive Line: The Art of Pierre-Paul Prud'hon. Newark, Del., 2001, p. 173.

    Françoise Pitt-Rivers. Madame Vigée Le Brun. Paris, 2001, p. 76, fig. 5.

    Britta C. Dwyer. "Book reviews [review of Ref. Borzello 1998]." Woman's Art Journal 23 (Spring–Summer 2002), p. 43.

    Melissa Hyde in Eik Kahng and Marianne Roland Michel. Anne Vallayer-Coster: Painter to the Court of Marie-Antoinette. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington. Dallas, 2002, p. 76, fig. 2.

    Astrid Reuter. Marie-Guilhelmine Benoist: Gestaltungsräume einer Künstlerin um 1800. Berlin, 2002, pp. 94–95, 98, fig. 31.

    Gerrit Walczak. "Jean-Laurent Mosnier: Fame, Revolution and Early Exile." Apollo 156 (September 2002), pp. 3, 10 n. 5, calls Mosnier's "Self-Portrait" of 1786 an ambitious answer to this one.

    Laura Auricchio. "The Laws of 'Bienséance' and the Gendering of Emulation in Eighteenth-Century French Art Education." Eighteenth-Century Studies [Forum: Emulation in France, 1750–1800] 36 (Winter 2003), p. 235–39, ill., notes that "this image constructs the female 'atelier' as an alternative model of artistic education driven by a new understanding of emulation [as defined in Thomas Crow's, "Emulation: David, Drouais, and Girodet in the Art of Revolutionary France," New Haven, 2006] . . . that removes all hint of competition".

    Melissa Hyde. "Under the Sign of Minerva: Adélaïde Labille-Guiard's 'Portrait of Madame Adélaïde'." Women, Art and the Politics of Identity in Eighteenth-Century Europe. Aldershot, England, 2003, pp. 150–53, ill.

    Joseph Baillio et al. The Arts of France from François Ier to Napoléon Ier. Exh. cat., Wildenstein & Co., Inc. New York, [2005], pp. 60, 74, no. 65, ill.

    Heidi A. Strobel. "Royal 'Matronage' of Women Artists in the Late-18th Century." Woman's Art Journal 26 (Fall 2005–Winter 2006), pp. 6–7, ill. on cover (color).

    Olivier Blanc. Portraits de femmes artistes et modèles à l'époque de Marie-Antoinette. Paris, 2006, pp. 78, 80–81 n. 135, ill. p. 82 (color), identifies the pupils as probably "Melles Capet and Avril".

    Laura Auricchio. "Self-Promotion in Adélaïde Labille-Guiard's 1785 'Self-Portrait with Two Students'." Art Bulletin 89 (March 2007), pp. 45–62, ill. (color), notes that while Labille-Guiard borrows from traditions of self-portraiture, she "taints these conventions with tinges of alluring sexuality and brash commerce"; finds the display of the artist's physical attractions "all the more striking when seen against the more demurely rendered figures of the two students" and sees a source for her pose and costume in engravings published in the "Galerie des Modes et des Costumes" of 1784.

    Philippe Bordes. "Portraiture in the Mode of Genre: A Social Interpretation." French Painting in the Eighteenth Century. Washington, 2007, p. 258.

    Lesley Stevenson in Inspiring Impressionism: The Impressionists and the Art of the Past. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art, Atlanta. Denver, 2007, p. 187.

    Old Master Drawings and Oil Sketches. Exh. cat., W. M. Brady & Co. New York, 2008, unpaginated, under no. 27, fig. 47.

    Nathalie Lemoine-Bouchard. Les peintres en miniature actifs en France, 1650–1850. Paris, 2008, p. 317, ill.

    Mary Sprinson de Jesús. "Adélaïde Labille-Guiard's Pastel Studies of the Mesdames de France." Metropolitan Museum Journal 43 (2008), pp. 159–61, 167–68, 170 nn. 5–8, fig. 4 (color), mentions Jacques-Louis David's 1787 "Death of Socrates" (31.45) in relation to this work, as both emphasize "the importance of serving as an inspiration and guide to the young—of one's gender".

    Laura Auricchio. Adélaïde Labille-Guiard: Artist in the Age of Revolution. Los Angeles, 2009, pp. 40, 42–47, 49, 53–55, 76, 105–6, 114 nn. 102–3, 106, 108, 110, 115, p. 122, fig. 30 (color), suggests that Labille-Guiard took inspiration from Antoine Coypel's 1698 "Portrait of the Artist with His Son, Charles Antoine" (fig. 31, Musée des Beaux-Arts et d'Archéologie, Besançon) which was engraved.

    Laura Auricchio. "Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, Brief Life of an Enterprising Artist: 1749–1803." Harvard Magazine (September–October 2009), p. 36, ill. p. 37 (color).

    Katharine Baetjer and Marjorie Shelley. "Pastel Portraits: Images of 18th-Century Europe." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 68 (Spring 2011), p. 44.

    Marie-Josèphe Bonnet. Liberté, égalité, exclusion: femmes peintres en révolution, 1770–1804. Paris, 2012, pp. 57–62, 177 n. 1, pp. 196, 202, colorpl. 11.

    Melissa Lee Hyde in Stolthet & Fördom: Kvinna och konstnär i Frankrike och Sverige 1750–1860. Exh. cat., Nationalmuseum. Stockholm, 2012, pp. 36, 271 n. 8, ill. p. 32 (color).

    Neil Jeffares. Dictionary of Pastellists before 1800. online ed. 2012, pp. 1–3 [http://www.pastellists.com/Articles/LabilleGuiard.pdf].

    Jean-Pierre Cuzin. François-André Vincent, 1746–1816: Entre Fragonard et David. Paris, 2013, pp. 256, 446, fig. 85 (color).



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