Garden at Sainte-Adresse

Claude Monet (French, Paris 1840–1926 Giverny)

Oil on canvas
38 5/8 x 51 1/8 in. (98.1 x 129.9 cm)
Credit Line:
Purchase, special contributions and funds given or bequeathed by friends of the Museum, 1967
Accession Number:
  • Gallery Label

    Monet spent the summer of 1867 with his family at Sainte-Adresse, a seaside resort near Le Havre. It was there that he painted this buoyant, sunlit scene of contemporary leisure, enlisting his father (shown seated in a panama hat) and other relatives as models. By adopting an elevated viewpoint and painting the terrace, sea, and sky as three distinct bands of high-keyed color, Monet emphasized the flat surface of the canvas. His approach—daring for its time—reflects his admiration for Japanese prints. Twelve years after it was made, Monet exhibited the picture at the fourth Impressionist exhibition of 1879 as Jardin à Sainte-Adresse.

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed (lower right): Claude Monet

  • Provenance

    Victor Frat, Montpellier (probably before 1870–at least 1879; bought from the artist); his widow, Mme Frat, Montpellier (until 1913; sold on April 16 for Fr 27,000 to Durand-Ruel, Paris); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1913; stock no. 3653; transferred on May 12 to Durand-Ruel, New York]; [Durand-Ruel, New York, 1913–26; sold on June 4, 1926 for $11,500 to Pitcairn]; Reverend Theodore Pitcairn and the Beneficia Foundation, Bryn Athyn, Pa. (1926–67; sale, Christie's, London, December 1, 1967, no. 26 to Thomas Agnew & Son for MMA)

  • Exhibition History

    Paris. 28, avenue de l'Opéra. "4me exposition de peinture [4th Impressionist exhibition]," April 10–May 11, 1879, no. 157 (as "Jardin à Sainte-Adresse," lent by M. Frat).

    New York. Durand-Ruel. "Paintings by Cl. Monet," March 7–21, 1914, no. 1 [see Wildenstein 1974].

    San Francisco. Palace of Fine Arts. "Panama-Pacific International Exposition," 1915, no. 2811 (as "Le Havre: terrasse au bord de la mer").

    Philadelphia. Art Club. "Memorial Exhibition of the Works of Cl. Monet," 1927, no. 34 [see Wildenstein 1996].

    New York. World's Fair. "Masterpieces of Art: European & American Paintings, 1500–1900," May–October 1940, no. 321 (as "Harbor near Havre," lent by the Rev. Theodore Pitcairn, Bryn Athyn, PA).

    New York. Wildenstein. "A Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Claude Monet for the Benefit of the Children of Giverny," April 11–May 12, 1945, no. 6 (as "La Terrasse au Havre," lent by the Rev. Theodore Pitcairn).

    Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Philadelphia Private Collections," May(?) 1947, no. 7 (as "The Terrace at Le Havre," lent by Rev. and Mrs. Theodore Pitcairn).

    Wilmington. Delaware Art Center. "French Paintings: 1847–1947," January 12–February 1, 1948, no. 27 (as "Terrace near Le Havre").

    Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Diamond Jubilee Exhibition: Masterpieces of Painting," November 4, 1950–February 11, 1951, no. 68 (as "Terrace at the Seaside Near Le Havre," lent by the Rev. and Mrs. Theodore Pitcairn).

    Kunsthaus Zürich. "Claude Monet, 1840–1926," May 10–June 15, 1952, no. 8 (as "La Terrasse du Havre," lent anonymously).

    Paris. Galerie Beaux-Arts. "Claude Monet," June 19–July 17, 1952, no. 6 (as "La terrasse du Havre," lent by Rd Theodore Pitcairn).

    The Hague. Gemeentemuseum. "Claude Monet," July 24–September 22, 1952, no. 7 (as "Terras in Le Havre," lent by Rd. Theodore Pitcairn).

    Paris. Musée de l'Orangerie. "De David à Toulouse-Lautrec: Chefs-d'œuvre des collections américaines," Spring 1955, no. 40 (as "La terrasse au bord de la mer près du Havre," lent by Rev. Theodore Pitcairn, Bry [sic] Athyn, Pennsylvania).

    Washington. National Gallery of Art. "Masterpieces of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Painting," April 25–May 24, 1959, unnumbered cat. (p. 33, as "Terrace near Le Havre," lent by the Reverend Theodore Pitcairn).

    New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Claude Monet: Seasons and Moments," March 9–May 15, 1960, no. 2 (as "The Terrace at the Seaside, Sainte-Adresse," lent by the Reverend Theodore Pitcairn, Bryn Athyn, PA).

    Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Collection of the Reverend and Mrs. Theodore Pitcairn," Summer 1960, no catalogue.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (ill. p. 79).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 15, 1970–February 15, 1971, no. 378.

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Centenaire de l'impressionnisme," September 21–November 24, 1974, no. 26.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, no. 26.

    Art Institute of Chicago. "Paintings by Monet," March 15–May 11, 1975, no. 6.

    Leningrad [St. Petersburg]. State Hermitage Museum. "100 Paintings from the Metropolitan Museum," May 22–July 27, 1975, no. 67.

    Moscow. State Pushkin Museum. "100 Paintings from the Metropolitan Museum," August 28–November 2, 1975, no. 67.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Patterns of Collecting: Selected Acquisitions, 1965–1975," December 6, 1975–March 23, 1976, unnumbered cat. (ill. p. 87).

    Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape," June 28–September 16, 1984, no. 5.

    Washington. National Gallery of Art. "The New Painting: Impressionism 1874–1886," January 17–April 6, 1986, no. 81.

    San Francisco. M. H. de Young Memorial Museum. "The New Painting: Impressionism 1874–1886," April 19–July 6, 1986, no. 81.

    Naples. Museo di Capodimonte. "Capolavori Impressionisti dei Musei Americani," December 3, 1986–February 1, 1987, no. 28.

    Milan. Pinacoteca di Brera. "Capolavori Impressionisti dei Musei Americani," March 4–May 10, 1987, no. 28.

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," April 19–August 8, 1994, no. 137.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Origins of Impressionism," September 27, 1994–January 8, 1995, no. 137.

    Art Institute of Chicago. "Claude Monet, 1840–1926," July 22–November 26, 1995, no. 11.

    Canberra. National Gallery of Australia. "Monet & Japan," March 9–June 11, 2001, no. 4.

    Perth. Art Gallery of Western Australia. "Monet & Japan," July 7–September 16, 2001, no. 4.

    Art Institute of Chicago. "Manet and the Sea," October 20, 2003–January 19, 2004, no. 98.

    Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Manet and the Sea," February 15–May 30, 2004, no. 98.

    Amsterdam. Van Gogh Museum. "Manet and the Sea," June 18–September 26, 2004, no. 98.

    Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. "Monet in Normandy," June 17–September 17, 2006, no. 6.

    Raleigh. North Carolina Museum of Art. "Monet in Normandy," October 15, 2006–January 14, 2007, no. 6.

    Cleveland Museum of Art. "Monet in Normandy," February 18–May 20, 2007, no. 6.

    Berlin. Neue Nationalgalerie. "Französische Meisterwerke des 19.Jahrhunderts aus dem Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," June 1–October 7, 2007, unnumbered cat.

    Paris. Galeries nationales, Grand Palais. "Claude Monet: 1840–1926," September 22, 2010–January 24, 2011, no. 17.

  • References

    Émile Zola. "Mon Salon, IV. Les Actualistes." L'Evénement illustré (May 24, 1868) [reprinted in Émile Zola, "Salons," ed. F. W. J. Hemmings and Robert J. Neiss, Geneva, 1959, p. 132], admiringly describes a series of garden pictures painted by Monet, probably including this work among the group.

    Gustave Geffroy. "Claude Monet." L'Art et les artistes, n.s., 2 (October 1920–February 1921), ill. p. 57.

    Arsène Alexandre. Claude Monet. Paris, 1921, p. 35, ill. opp. p. 26.

    André Fontainas and Louis Vauxcelles. Histoire générale de l'art français de la Révolution à nos jours. 1, Paris, 1922, ill. p. 137.

    Gustave Geffroy. Claude Monet: Sa vie, son temps, son œuvre. Paris, 1922, pp. 98, 261, ill. opp. p. 16.

    Louis Vauxcelles. "Claude Monet." L'Amour de l'art 3 (August 1922), ill. p. 233.

    Florent Fels. Claude Monet. Paris, 1925, ill. p. 23, dates it 1866.

    Camille Mauclair. Claude Monet. London, [1925], p. 41 [French ed., Paris, 1924, p. 35].

    J.-E. Blanche. "Claude Monet." Revue de Paris (February 1, 1927), p. 571.

    Albert Dreyfus. "Claude Monet." Der Cicerone 19 (1927), pp. 60–61, ill.

    François Fosca. Claude Monet. Paris, 1927, p. 97.

    Raymond Koechlin. "Claude Monet." Art et Décoration 51 (February 1927), p. 36.

    Charles Kunstler. L'Art Vivant 3 (September 1, 1927), pp. 676–77, ill.

    Raymond Régamey. "La Formation de Claude Monet." Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 5th ser., 15 (February 1927), pp. 70, 78–79.

    Robert Rey. "Claude Monet et l'impressionnisme." L'Art Vivant 3 (January 1, 1927), p. 13, ill. pp. 20–21.

    Charles Léger. Claude Monet. Paris, 1930, pl. 2.

    Georges Grappe. Monet. Paris, 1941, ill. p. 7.

    Maurice Malingue. Claude Monet. Monaco, 1943, pp. 22, 145, ill. p. 45, as in a private collection in Germany; identifies the seated man as Monet's father, Adolphe Monet.

    John Rewald. "Monet Serves His Home Village." Art News 44 (May 1–14, 1945), pp. 20–21, ill. (overall and detail).

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1946, p. 134, ill. opp. p. 134 (color).

    Aline B. Louchheim. "The Main Line Collects: A Chance to See Philadelphia's Privately Owned Masterpieces." Art News 46 (July 1947), ill. p. 12 (color).

    Oscar Reuterswärd. Monet. Stockholm, 1948, p. 281.

    Claude Roger-Marx. Monet. Lausanne, [1949], pl. 6.

    Curt Schweicher. Monet. Bern, [1949], pl. 6.

    Jean Leymarie. Impressionism. Lausanne, 1955, pp. 51–52, ill. (color).

    Douglas Cooper and John Richardson. Claude Monet. Exh. cat., Royal Scottish Academy Building. Edinburgh, 1957, pp. 10, 20.

    Denis Rouart in Claude Monet. [Lausanne], 1958, pp. 8, 39–40, ill. p. 37 (color detail).

    John Canaday. Mainstreams of Modern Art. New York, 1959, p. 186, fig. 208.

    Cl. Richebé. "Claude Monet au Musée Marmottan." Académie des Beaux-Arts (1959–60), p. 114.

    Jean-Pierre Hoschedé. Claude Monet: Ce mal connu. Geneva, 1960, pp. 57–58.

    William C. Seitz. Claude Monet. New York, [1960], pp. 10, 21, 46, 72, 126, ill. p. 73 (color).

    Ralph T. Coe. "Consequences of Retinal Sensitivity." Art News 60 (March 1961), p. 40.

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. rev., enl. ed. New York, 1961, pp. 152, 154, ill. p. 153 (color).

    C. P. Weekes. Camille, a Study of Claude Monet. 1962, p. 87 [information from old catalogue card].

    Raymond Cogniat. Monet and His World. London, 1966, pp. 7–8, 131, ill.

    René Gimpel. Diary of an Art Dealer. English ed. New York, 1966, p. 152, relates that Monet at one time showed him a photograph of one of the artist's paintings depicting his father looking out to sea, with a flagpole on either side of the composition, said to be in America, presumably this work; states that Monet sold it for Fr 400 to Pratt, whose widow sold it for Fr 40,000 to Durand-Ruel, from whom Monet wanted to buy it back; adds that Monet mentioned that "at the time this composition was considered very daring".

    Joel Isaacson. "Monet's Views of Paris." Allen Memorial Art Museum Bulletin 24 (Fall 1966), pp. 13–14, 18, fig. 5.

    Charles Merrill Mount. Monet, a biography. New York, 1966, pp. 142–43, 405, 407, claims that Monet painted this scene from a window; identifies each of the four figures depicted; believes a painting now in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris (W69) to have been the picture included in the fourth Impressionist exhibition of 1879 as no. 157, not this work.

    Luigina Rossi Bortolatto. L'opera completa di Claude Monet, 1870–1889. Milan, 1966, pp. 89–90, no. 18, ill.

    René Huyghe. "Monet: The Life and Death of Impressionism." Réalités 202 (September 1967), p. 68.

    Joel Isaacson. "The Early Paintings of Claude Monet." PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1967, pp. xi, 144, 158–65, 168–74, 188, 195, 204, 231, 235, 239, 313–15 nn. 21, 28–29, p. 320 n. 31, pl. 50.

    G. W. "The Sale-Room." Apollo 87 (January 1968), p. 73, colorpl. XII.

    Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill., and on cover (color detail).

    William Seitz. "The Relevance of Impressionism." Art News 67 (January 1969), p. 29.

    Denys Sutton. Claude Monet: The Early Years. Exh. cat., Lefevre Gallery. London, 1969, p. 12, fig. VI.

    Douglas Cooper. "The Monets in the Metropolitan Museum." Metropolitan Museum Journal 3 (1970), pp. 281, 284–85, 300, 302, 305, fig. 4.

    Jean Clay. L'Impressionnisme. [Paris], 1971, p. 146, ill. (color detail), dates it 1866–67.

    François Duret-Robert Preface by René Huyghe in L'Impressionnisme. [Paris], 1971, pp. 303, 306, ill. [excerpt translated and published in White, ed., "Impressionism in Perspective," Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1978, pp. 99–100, fig. 9], traces the various prices paid for it through the years.

    Kermit Swiler Champa. Studies in Early Impressionism. New Haven, 1973, pp. 13–15, 17–18, 20, 30, pl. 5, dates it late summer 1866.

    Everett Fahy in "Paintings, Drawings." The Wrightsman Collection. 5, [New York], 1973, p. 144.

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. 4th rev. ed. New York, 1973, pp. 152–53, ill. (color), dates it about 1867 and states that it was painted on the property of Monet's family, identifying the figure in the right foreground as the artist's father.

    Carl R. Baldwin The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Impressionist Epoch. [New York], 1974, p. 15.

    Richard J. Boyle. American Impressionism. Boston, 1974, ill. p. 32.

    [John House]. "The Roots of the Impressionists." Times Literary Supplement (May 3, 1974), p. 464.

    René Huyghe Lydie Huyghe in La Relève du réel: la peinture française au XIXe siècle: impressionnisme, symbolisme. Paris, 1974, p. 114.

    Charles S. Moffett in Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1974, pp. 140–44, no. 26, ill. (overall, color, and detail) [French ed., "Centenaire de l'impressionnisme," Paris, 1974], dates it about 1866–67.

    Daniel Wildenstein. "1840–1881: Peintures." Claude Monet: Biographie et catalogue raisonné. 1, Lausanne, 1974, pp. 38, 47, 164–65, no. 95, ill., dates it summer 1867.

    Joel Isaacson. "Studies in Early Impressionism." Art Bulletin 57 (September 1975), pp. 452–53.

    Margaretta Salinger in "The Price Was Not Too High." The Chase, the Capture: Collecting at the Metropolitan. New York, 1975, pp. 200, 202, 204–6, fig. 53.

    Grace Seiberling in Paintings by Monet. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 1975, pp. 24–25, no. 6, ill. p. 60.

    Alice Bellony-Rewald. The Lost World of the Impressionists. London, 1976, pp. 62, 106, ill. p. 64, mentions a study for this picture [possibly W96].

    Bernard Dunstan. Painting Methods of the Impressionists. New York, 1976, pp. 47, 51, 86, ill. (overall and detail).

    Anne Coffin Hanson. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven, 1977, p. 172, dates it 1866.

    Jean C. Harris. "Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art, 1854–1910." Art Bulletin 59 (September 1977), p. 454.

    John House. Monet. Oxford, 1977, pp. 5–6, colorpl. 6, notes that Monet spoke of it as an early example of the influence of Japanese prints on his art.

    François Duret-Robert in Maurice Sérullaz. "The Verdict of the Salerooms." Phaidon Encyclopedia of Impressionism. English ed. [French ed., 1974]. Oxford, 1978, p. 255, ill. (photograph of it at Christie's sale, 1967).

    John House. "The New Monet Catalogue." Burlington Magazine 120 (October 1978), p. 681, discusses Wildenstein's [see Ref. 1974] creation of a hypothetical painting (W107) from references in two letters, which House believes concerns this picture.

    Joel Isaacson. Observation and Reflection: Claude Monet. Oxford, 1978, pp. 16, 69, 199–200, pl. 21.

    Maurice Sérullaz in Phaidon Encyclopedia of Impressionism. Oxford, 1978, p. 131.

    Robert Herbert. "Method and Meaning in Monet." Art in America 67 (September 1979), pp. 104, 108, ill. pp. 100–101 (color, overall and detail).

    Hélène Adhémar. Hommage à Claude Monet (1840–1926). Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. Paris, 1980, p. 20.

    Anne Distel. Hommage à Claude Monet (1840–1926). Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. Paris, 1980, pp. 56, 99.

    A Dealer's Record: Agnew's, 1967–81. London, 1981, p. 11, ill. p. 112 (color).

    Jacques Dufwa. Winds from the East: A Study in the Art of Manet, Degas, Monet and Whistler 1856–86. Stockholm, 1981, pp. 125–30, 150, 188–90, 206–7 n. 19, fig. 102.

    Bogomila Welsh-Ovcharov. Vincent van Gogh and the Birth of Cloisonism. Exh. cat., Art Gallery of Ontario. Toronto, 1981, p. 280, suggests that it is a precedent for Bernard's "Afternoon at St. Briac" (Aargauer Kunsthaus, Aarau, Switzerland), dated 1887.

    Robert Gordon and Andrew Forge. Monet. New York, 1983, p. 40, ill. p. 35 (color).

    Andrew Forge. "Voilà mon atelier. A moi!." Aspects of Monet. New York, 1984, pp. 98–100, ill. p. 92 (color).

    Scott Schaefer in A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape. Exh. cat., Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Los Angeles, 1984, pp. 58, 62, 66, 68, 88, 211, 217, 224, 280, 365, no. 5, ill. (color) [French ed., "L'impressionisme et le paysage français," Paris, 1985, pp. 46, 48, 53–54, 75, 216, 222, 232, 302, no. 5, ill. (color)].

    Barbara Ehrlich White. Renoir: His Life, Art, and Letters. New York, 1984, p. 254.

    Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 11, 108, 110–11, 113, 251, ill. (color).

    Shunsuke Kijima. Monet. Tokyo, 1985, unpaginated, fig. 6 (color).

    Monet: A Retrospective. New York, 1985, pp. 38, 45, 100, 273, 310, colorpl. 13, quotes various comments, including the incorrect connection of it to a description by Émile Zola and the assertion that it was shown at the Salon of 1865 as "The Terrace at Sainte-Adresse".

    Daniel Wildenstein. "1899–1926: Peintures." Claude Monet: Biographie et catalogue raisonné. 4, Lausanne, 1985, p. 79 n. 726, p. 85.

    Michael Clarke. Lighting up the Landscape: French Impressionism and its Origins. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh, 1986, p. 72.

    John House. Monet: Nature into Art. New Haven, 1986, pp. 15–16, 47, 49, 51, 114–15, 136, 188, 235 n. 6, p. 237 n. 22, colorpl. 67, compares the composition to Hokusai's "The Sazaido of the Gohyaku Rakan-ji Temple," of which Monet owned a print, and to Millet's "The End of the Village of Gréville" (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston), exhibited at the 1866 Salon; mentions that Monet removed two additional boats originally included in the scene.

    Ronald Pickvance in The New Painting: Impressionism 1874–1886. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington. San Francisco, 1986, pp. 259, 265 n. 95, pp. 269, 286, no. 81, ill. (color).

    Douglas Skeggs. River of Light: Monet's Impressions of the Seine. New York, 1987, pp. 34–37, ill. (color).

    Gary Tinterow et al. Capolavori impressionisti dei musei americani. Exh. cat., Museo di Capodimonte, Naples. Milan, 1987, pp. 66–67, no. 28, ill. (color).

    Gary Tinterow et al. "Modern Europe." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 8, New York, 1987, pp. 6, 8, 30, colorpl. 14.

    Robert L. Herbert. Impressionism: Art, Leisure, and Parisian Society. New Haven, 1988, pp. 291–93, fig. 297, comments on the ships, remarking that there are boats representative of both older and newer time periods and that the various nautical vessels illustrate marine commerce and prosperity, as well as the juxtaposition of traditional working life at Sainte-Adresse and the vacation spot it was becoming when this picture was painted; suggests that the view over the English Channel represents Monet's alliance to the modernity of contemporary painters instead of the tradition of academic artists.

    Francesco Arcangeli. Monet. Bologna, 1989, p. 39, fig. 18.

    Geneviève Lacambre. "Le Temps du Salon." L'Art du XIXe siècle, 1850–1905. Paris, 1990, p. 39, fig. 37 (color).

    Karin Sagner-Düchting. Claude Monet, 1840–1926: Ein Fest für die Augen. Cologne, 1990, pp. 38, 221, ill. p. 36 (color).

    Paul Hayes Tucker. Monet in the '90s: The Series Paintings. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston, 1990, pp. 125, 276 n. 24, fig. 50.

    Colin B. Bailey in Masterpieces of Impressionism & Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 48, 154 n. 5.

    Anna G. Barskaya and Albert G. Kostenevich. The Hermitage Catalogue of Western European Painting: French Painting, Mid-Nineteenth to Twentienth [sic] Centuries. Florence, 1991, p. 307.

    Sylvie Patin. Monet: 'Un Œil... Mais, Bon Dieu, Quel Œil!'. [Paris], 1991, pp. 26–27, ill. (color, overall and details).

    Gary Tinterow. "Miracle au Met." Connaissance des arts no. 472 (June 1991), p. 36.

    Michael F. Zimmermann. Seurat and the Art Theory of His Time. Antwerp, 1991, p. 108.

    Virginia Spate. Claude Monet: Life and Work. New York, 1992, pp. 48–49, 59, 83, 87, 144, fig. 45 (color), suggests that the empty chairs represent Monet's feeling of isolation from his family members, who were unhappy with his unmarried relationship with Camille Doncieux.

    Chuji Ikegami. "Period of Impressionism." New History of World Art. 22, Tokyo, 1993, fig. 107.

    Robert L. Herbert. Monet on the Normandy Coast: Tourism and Painting, 1867–1886. New Haven, 1994, pp. 11–14, 16, 28, 34, 73, 108, ill. p. 5 (color detail), fig. 17 (color).

    Michael Kimmelman. "A Decade that Remade the World in Paint." New York Times (September 25, 1994), section 2, p. 40.

    Lynn Federle Orr. "Monet: An Introduction." Monet: Late Paintings of Giverny from the Musée Marmottan. Exh. cat., New Orleans Museum of Art. New Orleans, 1994, pp. 16–17, fig. 2 (color).

    Gary Tinterow in Gary Tinterow and Henri Loyrette. Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 143, 246–48, 433–34, 436, no. 137, ill. p. 433 and fig. 310 (color) [French ed., "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," Paris, 1994].

    Gary Tinterow and Henri Loyrette. Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 296, 322 [French ed., "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," Paris, 1994].

    Richard R. Brettell. "Chicago: Claude Monet, 1840–1926." Burlington Magazine 137 (November 1995), p. 772.

    Michael Kimmelman. "Eclectic Monet, Bathed in Chicago's Ballyhoo." New York Times (July 24, 1995), p. C11.

    Albert Kostenevich. Hidden Treasures Revealed: Impressionist Masterpieces and Other Important French Paintings Preserved by the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg. Exh. cat.New York, 1995, p. 132.

    Joachim Pissarro. "Monet at the Art Institute of Chicago." Apollo 142 (December 1995), p. 63.

    Charles F. Stuckey. Claude Monet, 1840–1926. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 1995, pp. 33, 204, 245–46, no. 11, colorpl. 11, notes that no review of the 1879 exhibition [see Exh. Paris 1879] mentions it, and suggests that despite its entry in the catalogue, it may not have been shown; dates the Durand-Ruel Gallery exhibition in New York to February 1–16, 1914 [but see Ref. Wildenstein 1974].

    John Russell Taylor. Claude Monet: Impressions of France from Le Havre to Giverny. London, 1995, ill. p. 47 (color).

    Paul Hayes Tucker. Claude Monet: Life and Art. New Haven, 1995, pp. 27–30, colorpl. 38.

    "Documentation: Volume I, Reviews and Volume II, Exhibited Works." The New Painting: Impressionism 1874–1886. San Francisco, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 206, 236; vol. 2, p. 116, ill. p. 135.

    Daniel Wildenstein. "Catalogue raisonné–Werkverzeichnis: Nos. 1–968." Monet. 2, 2nd ed. Cologne, 1996, p. 51, no. 95, ill. (color).

    Daniel Wildenstein. Monet or the Triumph of Impressionism. 1, 2nd ed. Cologne, 1996, p. 68, ill. pp. 64–65 (color).

    Anne-Marie Bergeret-Gourbin. Monet: La Normandie. Paris, 1997, pp. 20–21, ill. (color), dates it summer 1867.

    "19th & 20th Century Milestones at Christie's." Christie's ART (1997), unpaginated.

    Carla Rachman. Monet. London, 1997, pp. 72, 75, fig. 50 (color).

    Susanne Weiss. Claude Monet: Ein distanzierter Blick auf Stadt und Land Werke, 1859–1889. Berlin, 1997, pp. 92–93, fig. 29.

    Matthias Arnold. Claude Monet. Hamburg, 1998, pp. 35, 38, ill.

    Joel Isaacson in Impressionists in Winter: Effets de neige. Exh. cat., Phillips Collection. Washington, 1998, p. 77 n. 9.

    Dianne W. Pitman. Bazille: Purity, Pose, and Painting in the 1860s. University Park, 1998, pp. 120, 122, 126, 250 n. 11, fig. 73.

    Gian Carlo Calza Palazzo Vecchio. Hokusai: Il vecchio pazzo per la pittura. Exh. cat., Palazzo Reale, Milan. Milan, 1999, p. 415, fig. 2 (color).

    Robert L. Herbert. Seurat: Drawings and Paintings. New Haven, 2001, p. 93.

    Virginia Spate and David Bromfield. "A New and Strange Beauty: Monet and Japanese Art." Monet & Japan. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Australia. Canberra, 2001, pp. 5, 15–16, 31, 37, 195, no. 4, ill. pp. 64, 81 (color, overall and detail).

    John Leighton in Juliet Wilson-Bareau David Degener. Manet and the Sea. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Philadelphia, 2003, pp. 204, 216, pl. 98 (color).

    Dominique Lobstein. Monet et Londres. 2004, pp. 8–9, ill. (color).

    Clare A. P. Willsdon. In the Gardens of Impressionism. New York, 2004, pp. 24, 51, 86–88, 90, 94, 111, colorpl. 87, identifies the specific types of flowers depicted as geraniums, nasturtiums, and gladioli; suggests that Monet may have chosen to paint these particular flowers for their significance based on the nineteenth-century code of floral meanings.

    John House in The Painter's Garden: Design, Inspiration, Delight. Exh. cat., Städel Museum. Frankfurt, 2006, pp. 196, 198 n. 14, fig. 18 (color), disagrees with Willsdon's [see Ref. 2004] interpretation of it.

    Doris Kutschbach. Living Monet: The Artist's Gardens. Munich, 2006, pp. 12–13, ill. (color).

    Lynn Federle Orr in Monet in Normandy. Exh. cat., Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. New York, 2006, pp. 62–64, 183, no. 6, ill. pp. 1 (color), 63, dates it to the summer of 1867, and from period maps and photographs locates the terrace as previously situated near the modern Alphonse-Karr path.

    Pierre Rosenberg. Only in America: One Hundred Paintings in American Museums Unmatched in European Collections. Milan, 2006, pp. 178–79, 233, ill. (color).

    Joseph Baillio and Cora Michael in Claude Monet (1840–1926): A Tribute to Daniel Wildenstein and Katia Granoff. Exh. cat., Wildenstein & Co., Inc. New York, 2007, pp. 155, 182, 185–86, 214 n. 21, fig. 5 (color).

    Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 135, 279–80, no. 124, ill. (color and black and white).

    Eric M. Zafran in Claude Monet (1840–1926): A Tribute to Daniel Wildenstein and Katia Granoff. Exh. cat., Wildenstein & Co., Inc. New York, 2007, pp. 119, 125, 128, 137–38, 144, 150 n. 400, fig. 48.

    Katharine Baetjer in Philippe de Montebello and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977–2008. New York, 2009, p. xi.

    Colin B. Bailey in Masterpieces of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection. 4th rev. ed. [1st ed., 1989]. New York, 2009, p. 60.

    Joseph Baillio in Claude Monet: 1840–1926. Exh. cat., Galeries nationales, Grand Palais. Paris, 2010, pp. 55–57, 59 nn. 18, 20, p. 365, no. 17, ill. p. 111 (color), notes that the exact site has yet to be determined; identifies the seated man as Monet's father, the seated woman as perhaps Sophie Perotty, and the standing figures as probably Jeanne-Marguerite Lecadre with either her husband, brother-in-law, or Monet's brother Léon; identifies the painting as one of the works referred to in Zola 1868.

    Sylvie Patin in Claude Monet: 1840–1926. Exh. cat., Galeries nationales, Grand Palais. Paris, 2010, p. 221.

    James H. Rubin in A City for Impressionism: Monet, Pissarro, and Gauguin in Rouen. Exh. cat., Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen. Paris, 2010, p. 102, ill. (color).

  • Notes

    Sainte-Adresse is a resort town just north of Le Havre on the coast of Normandy. Monet painted this picture during a stay with his family in the summer of 1867. His father, Adolphe Monet, is seated in the foreground. The figure next to him, with the parasol, is assumed to represent the elder Monet's half-sister, Sophie Lecadre. Her daughter, Jeanne-Marguerite, stands next to a man sometimes identified as her father, Dr. Adolphe Lecadre.

  • See also