Aristotle with a Bust of Homer

Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn) (Dutch, Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam)

Oil on canvas
56 1/2 x 53 3/4 in. (143.5 x 136.5 cm)
Credit Line:
Purchase, special contributions and funds given or bequeathed by friends of the Museum, 1961
Accession Number:
  • Gallery Label

    Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) rests his hand reflectively on a bust of Homer, the blind epic poet of the Iliad and the Odyssey. A medallion representing Alexander the Great, whom Aristotle tutored, hangs from the heavy gold chain. The philosopher contemplates material rewards as opposed to spiritual values, with the play of light and shadow on his features suggesting the motions of his mind. Painted for the great Sicilian collector Antonio Ruffo, the picture also refers to Aristotle's comparison of touch and sight as a means of acquiring knowledge. For further discussion of this work, see metmuseum.org/collections.

  • Catalogue Entry

    This picture was painted in 1653 for the Sicilian nobleman Don Antonio Ruffo (1610/11–1678) and sent from Amsterdam to his palace in Messina during the summer of 1654. Ruffo was an avid collector; at his death he had 364 paintings, including a work by Van Dyck, Saint Rosalie Interceding for the Plague-stricken of Palermo, now also in the MMA (71.41). Though he went out of his way to collect works by famous masters, Ruffo rarely left Messina. He ordered this work through an agent, Giacomo di Battista, who did business with Cornelis Gijsbrechtsz, a wealthy Amsterdam merchant. Shortly after its delivery, the picture was recorded in Ruffo's inventory (1657) as a half-length figure of a philosopher, possibly Aristotle or Albertus Magnus. Based on this description, Giltaij (1999) concludes that Ruffo did not have a particular subject in mind when he made the commission, but probably asked for a half-length figure of a certain size. The dimensions given in the inventory are 8 x 6 palmi, equivalent to about 178 x 134 cm. (one palmo romano was about 22.34 cm.) and considerably larger than the current dimensions of the painting. Kirby (1992) explains, however, that the dimensions in palmi used in the Ruffo inventories were inexact measurements meant only as a guide. X-radiography confirms that the painting is close to, if not exactly, its original size.

    In 1660, Ruffo commissioned a pendant for the Aristotle from the Bolognese artist Guercino (1591–1666), providing him with the desired dimensions and a sketch of the Rembrandt painting. In a letter to Ruffo of October 6, 1660, Guercino notes that "to accompany Rembrandt's which I judge to represent a Physiognomist, I thought it most fitting to make a Cosmographer . . . " Guercino's painting is now lost, but is known from a drawing in the Princeton University Art Museum.

    Ruffo also ordered companion paintings from Rembrandt. They are the Alexander the Great of 1661 (now lost) and the fragmentary Homer (Mauritshuis, The Hague), dated 1663. Both are mentioned in an invoice dated July 30, 1661. In a letter of November 1, 1662, Ruffo addressed a letter to the Dutch consul in Messina, expressing dissatisfaction with the painting of Alexander and noting that he paid more for it than for the Aristotle; that the subject was in fact Aristotle had probably been clarified for Ruffo once he commissioned the other works from Rembrandt.

    Until 1917, when Hoogewerff connected the newly published Ruffo documents with this painting, the subject had been variously identified as Ariosto, Tasso, Virgil, an imaginary man of letters, philospoher, or savant, or an actual poet or scholar of Rembrandt's time, such as Pieter Cornelisz Hooft.

    Julius Held's analysis of the subject in an article of 1969 is still widely upheld. According to Held, Aristotle compares "two sets of values": on the one hand, everything that he admired in Homer—gravity, humility, "unequalled diction and thought"—and, on the other, wealth and worldly honor as embodied by the gold chain and medallion bearing an image of Aristotle's royal pupil, Alexander the Great.

    [2010; adapted from Liedtke 2007]

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed and dated (on pedestal of bust): Rembrandt.f. / 1653.

  • Provenance

    Don Antonio Ruffo, principe della Scaletta, Messina, Sicily (1654–73; inv., 1660, [no. 599]); Don Placido Ruffo, principe della Scaletta, Messina (until 1710); Don Antonio Ruffo II, principe della Scaletta, Messina (1710–39); Don Calogero Ruffo, principe della Scaletta, Messina (1739–43); Don Giovanni Ruffo e la Rocca, principe della Scaletta, Messina (1743–55); ?Ruffo family, Messina (from 1755); ?Vaughan (until 1810; sale, Christie's, London, February 17, 1810, no. 113, as "Sculptor with a Bust," for £79.16 to Barnett [with no. 114, "Schoolmaster with his Pupil," the companion, for £32.11, presumably "Homer," now Mauritshuis, The Hague]); Sir Abraham Hume, Ashridge Park, Berkhampstead, Herts. (by 1815–d. 1838; cat., 1824, no. 116, as "Portrait of Cornelius van Hooft"); his grandson, John Hume Cust, Viscount Alford, Ashridge Park (1838–d. 1851); his son, John William Spencer Brownlow Cust, 2nd Earl Brownlow, Ashridge Park (1851–d. 1867); his brother, Adelbert Wellington Brownlow Cust, 3rd Earl Brownlow, Ashridge Park (1867–at least 1893); Rodolphe Kann, Paris (by 1897–d. 1905; his estate, 1905–7; cat., 1907, vol. 1, no. 65; sold to Duveen); [Duveen, Paris and New York, 1907; sold to Huntington]; Mrs. Collis P. (Arabella D.) Huntington, later [from 1913] Mrs. Henry E. Huntington, New York (1907–d. 1924); her son, Archer M. Huntington, New York (1924–28; sold to Duveen); [Duveen, New York, 1928; sold for $750,000 to Erikson]; Alfred W. Erickson, New York (1928–30; sold for $500,000 to Duveen); [Duveen, New York, 1930–36; sold for $590,000 to Erickson]; Alfred W. Erickson, New York (d. 1936); his widow, Mrs. Alfred W. Erickson, New York (1936–d. 1961; her estate sale, Parke-Bernet, New York, November 15, 1961, no. 7, to MMA)

  • Exhibition History

    London. British Institution. 1815, no. 39 (as "Portrait of Peter Cornelius Van Hooft," lent by Sir A. Hume).

    London. British Institution. June 1838, no. 12 (as "Portrait of Cornelius Van Hooft," lent by Viscount Alford).

    London. British Institution. June 1846, no. 75 (as "Cornelius Van Hooft," lent by Viscount Alford).

    London. Royal Academy of Arts. "Winter Exhibition," January–March 1893, no. 125 (as "Portrait of a Man," lent by the Earl Brownlow).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Hudson-Fulton Celebration," September–November 1909, no. 97 (as "The Savant," lent by Mrs. Collis P. Huntington, New York).

    London. Olympia. "The Daily Telegraph Exhibition of Antiques and Works of Art," July 19–August 1, 1928, no. X42 (as "A Savant with the Bust of Homer," lent by Sir Joseph Duveen).

    Detroit Institute of Arts. "Thirteenth Loan Exhibition of Old Masters: Paintings by Rembrandt," May 2–31, 1930, no. 51 (as "Aristotle," lent by Mr. A. W. Erickson, New York).

    Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum. "Rembrandt Tentoonstelling," June 11–September 4, 1932, no. 26 (lent by Sir Joseph Duveen, Bt., New-York).

    London. Christie's. "Art Treasures Exhibition," October 12–November 5, 1932, no. 1355 (lent by Sir Joseph Duveen).

    Art Institute of Chicago. "A Century of Progress," June 1–November 1, 1933, no. 73 (lent by Duveen Brothers, New York).

    Palm Beach. Society of the Four Arts. "Loan Collection of Old Master Paintings," 1936, no catalogue [see Morrish n.d.].

    Worcester Art Museum. "Rembrandt and His Circle," February 4–March 1, 1936, no. 6 (lent by Duveen Brothers, New York).

    New York. Knoedler Galleries. "Allied Art for Allied Aid," June 10–29, 1940, no. 5 (lent anonymously).

    New York. M. Knoedler & Co.. "Loan Exhibition in Honour of Royal Cortissoz," December 1–20, 1941, no. 16 (lent by Mrs. A. W. Erickson).

    Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum. "Rembrandt 1669/1969," September 13–November 30, 1969, no. 11.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (p. 44).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 15, 1970–February 15, 1971, no. 279.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," October 10, 1995–January 7, 1996, no. 11.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 18, 2007–January 6, 2008, no catalogue.

  • References

    Cornelis Gysbert van Goor. Letter to Giacomo di Battista. June 19, 1654 [published in Ref. Ruffo 1916, and in Ref. Ricci 1918 with corrections], states that he has consigned a crate containing this picture to the captain of the vessel Bartholomeus, sailing for Naples, and notes that 500 florins are due for the painting, plus additional costs.

    Inventory of Don Antonio Ruffo, principe della Scaletta. September 1, 1654 [published in Ref. Ruffo 1919], lists it as a half-length figure of a philosopher by Rembrandt, noting that it seems to depict either Aristotle ot Albertus Magnus.

    Don Antonio Ruffo, principe della Scaletta. Ledger entry. January 8, 1657 [published in Ref. Ricci 1918], refers to it as Albertus Magnus in a note regarding its frame.

    Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri). Letters to Don Antonio Ruffo. June 13–October 6/7, 1660 [published in Ref. Ruffo 1916], praises it and accepts a commission to paint a pendant in his own early style; acknowledges receipt of a sketch of this work; believes it represents a philosopher, and proposes a cosmographer as the pendant.

    Mattia Preti (Il Cavalier Calabrese). Letter to Don Antonio Ruffo. September 18, 1661 [published in Ref. Ricci 1918], states that he is painting for Ruffo a Dionysius of Syracuse, a half-length figure with a turban draped about its head "come l'altri due [like the other two]", probably referring to this work, having mistaken the cap for a turban.

    Nota di quadri vincolati in primogenitura, ricuperati da don Giovanni Ruffo . . . dalle rovine del palazzo caduto in Messina coll'orribile terremoto dei 5 febraro 1783. 1783 [private collection, Messina; published in Rosanna De Gennaro, "Aggiunta alle notizie sulla collezione di Antonio Ruffo . . . ," Napoli nobilissima 2 (September–December 2001), p. 214, no. 63], lists it as "Quadro di Alberto Magno, del Reimbrant, palmi 5 1/2, sono tre, onze 210", among paintings from the Ruffo collection rescued from the earthquake of February 5, 1783.

    A Descriptive Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures. London, 1824, pp. 36–37, no. 116, as "Portrait of Cornelius van Hooft".

    John Smith. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters. 7, London, 1836, p. 110, no. 302, as "Vander Hoof," in the collection of Sir Abraham Hume.

    G[ustav]. F[riedrich]. Waagen. "Kunstwerke und Künstler in England." Kunstwerke und Künstler in England und Paris. 2, Berlin, 1838, p. 20.

    G[ustav]. F[riedrich]. Waagen. Works of Art and Artists in England. London, 1838, vol. 2, p. 205, notes that although it is called a portrait of Van Hooft, it is dated 1653, and the historian died in 1647.

    [Gustav Friedrich] Waagen. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. London, 1854, vol. 2, pp. 315–16, as in the collection of the Earl Brownlow.

    C. Vosmaer. Rembrandt, sa vie et ses ouevres. 2nd ed. The Hague, 1877, p. 551, repeats the identification of the sitter as Hooft.

    Wilhelm [von] Bode. Studien zur Geschichte der holländischen Malerei. Braunschweig, 1883, pp. 501, 578, 620, no. 139, as a portrait of a man.

    Eugène Dutuit. Tableaux et dessins de Rembrandt. Paris, 1885, pp. 43, 63, 69, no. 316, as a portrait of a man, wrongly called Hooft.

    Alfred von Wurzbach. Rembrandt-galerie. Stuttgart, 1886, text vol., no. 159.

    Émile Michel. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, and His Time. English ed. New York, 1894, vol. 2, p. 235.

    Abraham Bredius and Cornelis Hofstede de Groot. Catalogue raisonné des tableaux et des sculptures. The Hague, 1895, p. 338, under no. 584, notes the similarities between the bust depicted here and the figure of Homer in the Mauritshuis painting.

    J. Six. "De Homerus van Rembrandt." Oud-Holland 15 (1897), pp. 4–6, fig. 7, as in the Rodolphe Kann collection; suggests that the subject is the epic poet Torquato Tasso.

    Malcolm Bell. Rembrandt van Rijn and His Work. London, 1899, pp. 80, 138–39, erroneously as still in the Brownlow collection; notes that it is Rembrandt's only painting dated 1653.

    Wilhelm [von] Bode. Gemälde-Sammlung des Herrn Rudolf Kann in Paris. Vienna, 1900, p. IV, ill. p. XI.

    Wilhelm [von] Bode. Gemäldesammlung des Herrn Rudolf Kann in Paris. Vienna, 1900, p. III, pl. 1, as "Porträt eines Gelehrten".

    Gustav Glück. "Die Gemäldesammlung des Herrn Rudolf Kann in Paris." Die Graphischen Künste 23 (1900), p. 89.

    Wilhelm [von] Bode with the assistance of C. Hofstede de Groot. The Complete Work of Rembrandt. 5, Paris, 1901, pp. 31, 180, no. 585, pl. 585, as "A Bearded Man with a Bust of Homer".

    Auguste Marguillier. "La collection de M. Rodolphe Kann." Les arts 2 (February 1903), pp. 19–20, ill.

    Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. Stuttgart, 1904, pp. XXXII, 261, 269, ill. p. 183.

    Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. 2nd ed. Stuttgart, 1906, pp. 402, 415, 426, 432, ill. p. 282.

    Catalogue of the Rodolphe Kann Collection: Pictures. Paris, 1907, vol. 1, p. 66, no. 65, ill. opp. p. 66.

    J. Kirby Grant. "Mrs. Collis P. Huntington's Collection." Connoisseur 20 (January 1908), pp. 5–6, ill. opp. p. 3.

    C. J. Holmes. "Recent Acquisitions by Mrs. C. P. Huntington from the Kann Collection." Burlington Magazine 12 (January 1908), pp. 197–98, ill. opp. p. 193.

    Marcel Nicolle. "La Collection Rodolphe Kann." Revue de l'art ancien et moderne 23 (January–June 1908), p. 194, ill. p. 195.

    Kenyon Cox. "Dutch Pictures in The Hudson-Fulton Exhibition—I." Burlington Magazine 16 (December 1909), p. 184.

    J[ohn]. Kruse. "Eine neuentdeckte Homerus-Zeichnung von Rembrandt im Nationalmuseum zu Stockholm, Studie zum Gemälde im Mauritshuis." Oud-Holland 27 (1909), pp. 224–25, ill., tentatively as Torquato Tasso.

    Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. 3rd ed. Stuttgart, 1909, pp. 562, 576, 589, 597, ill. p. 426, Valentiner calls it perhaps an ideal portrait of the poet Virgil.

    Wilhelm R. Valentiner. The Hudson-Fulton Celebration: Catalogue of an Exhibition Held in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1909, vol. 1, p. 98, no. 97, ill. opp. p. 98, as "The Savant," probably depicting Virgil.

    E[mil]. Waldmann. "Die Ausstellung Holländischer Gemälde des 17. Jahrhunderts in New York." Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst, n.s., 21, no. 4 (1910), p. 77, ill. p. 75, says the sitter may be Torquato Tasso or, more likely, Virgil.

    Abraham Bredius and Cornelis Hofstede de Groot. Catalogue raisonné des tableaux et des sculptures. 2nd ed. The Hague, 1914, p. 309, under. no. 584.

    Vincenzo Ruffo. "Galleria Ruffo nel secolo XVII in Messina." Archivio storico siciliano, n.s., 39 (1914), p. 338, notes that there were three Rembrandts in the Ruffo collection, known from the correspondence of Abraham Brueghel as "Aristotele che tiene la mano sopra una statua", "Alessandro Magno seduto", and "Omero seduto che insegna a due discepoli"; however, makes no connection between the Ruffo Aristotle and the MMA work.

    F. Schmidt Degener. "Rembrandt en Homerus." Feest-Bundel Dr. Abraham Bredius aangeboden den Achttienden April 1915. Amsterdam, 1915, pp. 19–22, as a poet.

    C[ornelis]. Hofstede de Groot. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. 6, London, 1916, pp. 221–22, no. 413.

    Vincenzo Ruffo. "Galleria Ruffo nel secolo XVII in Messina." Bollettino d'arte 10 (1916), pp. 100–102, 127–28, 165–66, 238, 318, publishes documents regarding this work when it was in the collection of Don Antonio Ruffo.

    G[offredo]. J. Hoogewerff. "Rembrandt en een Italiaansche Maecenas." Oud-Holland 35 (1917), pp. 129–48, ill., identifies the MMA work with the Aristotle in the Ruffo collection.

    Corrado Ricci. Rembrandt in Italia. Milan, 1918, pp. 7–53, ill., discusses and reprints, with additions and corrections, the documents published by Ruffo in 1916 [see Ref.].

    H[ans]. Schneider. "Rembrandt in Italien." Kunstchronik und Kunstmarkt, n.s., 30 (November 8, 1918), pp. 69–70.

    Vincenzo Ruffo. "La galleria Ruffo (appendice)." Bollettino d'arte nos. 1–4 (January–April 1919), pp. 55–56.

    D. S. Meldrum. Rembrandt's Paintings. London, 1923, p. 199, pl. CCCLII, as "Portrait of a Man of Letters".

    Carl Neumann. Rembrandt. 4th ed. Munich, 1924, vol. 2, pp. 534–36, fig. 161.

    J.-F. Backer. "Les tracas judiciaires de Rembrandt." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 11 (1925), pp. 53–54, ill.

    Frank E. Washburn Freund. "Rembrandts 'Aristoteles mit der Büste des Homer'." Der Cicerone 21 (August 1929), pp. 463–65, ill.

    Harry Adsit Bull. "Notes of the Month." International Studio 96 (June 1930), ill. p. 51.

    W. R. Valentiner. "Important Rembrandts in American Collections." Art News 28 (April 26, 1930), p. 4, ill. opp. p. 4, erroneously as painted in 1651.

    Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Rembrandt Paintings in America. New York, 1931, unpaginated, no. 115, pl. 115.

    Arthur M. Hind. Rembrandt: Being the Substance of the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures Delivered before Harvard University, 1930–1931. Cambridge, Mass., 1932, p. 135, pl. CXII.

    J. L. A. A. M. van Rijckevorsel. Rembrandt en de Traditie. Rotterdam, 1932, p. 15, fig. 12, states that the bust of Homer also served as the model for the head behind Pilate in "Pilate Washing His Hands" (MMA 14.40.610).

    "Great Classical Theme by Rembrandt Lent by Duveen Brothers." Art Digest 7 (May 15, 1933), p. 20, ill.

    "American Art Featured in Great Century of Progress Show Which Opened in Chicago on May 23." Art News 31 (May 27, 1933), ill. p. 8.

    A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt Gemälde. Vienna, 1935, p. 20, no. 478, pl. 478.

    Hans Tietze. Meisterwerke europäischer Malerei in Amerika. Vienna, 1935, p. 337, pl. 177 [English ed., New York, 1939, p. 321, pl. 177].

    F. Schmidt-Degener. "Le double carrière de Rembrandt." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 15 (1936), pp. 48–49, fig. 7.

    Emil Kieser. "Über Rembrandts Verhältnis zur Antike." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 10, no. 4/5 (1941/42), pp. 135–36, 144.

    Tancred Borenius. Rembrandt: Selected Paintings. London, 1942, pp. 14–15, pl. 60.

    Jakob Rosenberg. "Rembrandt and Guercino." Art Quarterly 7 (1944), pp. 129–34, fig. 2.

    Denis Mahon. Studies in Seicento Art and Theory. London, 1947, pp. 105–6 n. 178.

    Jakob Rosenberg. Rembrandt. Cambridge, Mass., 1948, vol. 1, pp. 165–68; vol. 2, pl. 242, identifies the medallion as depicting Alexander the Great.

    Herbert von Einem. "Rembrandt und Homer." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch 14 (1952), pp. 187–95, fig. 167.

    Seymour Slive. Rembrandt and His Critics, 1630–1730. The Hague, 1953, pp. 59–64, 81, 87, 107, fig. 20.

    Otto Benesch. "Worldly and Religious Portraits in Rembrandt's Late Art." Art Quarterly 19 (Winter 1956), p. 339.

    Jean Leymarie. Dutch Painting. [Geneva], 1956, p. 139, ill. p. 137 (color).

    Otto Benesch. Rembrandt. [New York], 1957, pp. 91–93, 96.

    A. H[yatt]. M[ayor]. "Collectors at Home." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 16 (November 1957), p. 108, ill. (photograph of Huntington's library).

    F[ritz]. Saxl. Lectures. London, 1957, vol. 1, pp. 309–10, pl. 216, commenting on Rembrandt's choice of subject matter for the Ruffo commission, notes that Aristotle's "Poetics" had recently been rediscovered and that Aristotle was held in high esteem in Holland; states that in this context the juxtaposition of Aristotle and Homer seems to conflate knowledge and poetry.

    W. R. Valentiner. Rembrandt and Spinoza: A Study of the Spiritual Conflicts in Seventeenth-Century Holland. London, 1957, pp. 66–68, fig. 10, suggests that the three portraits commissioned by Ruffo would have been hung together—with the Aristotle on the left, the Alexander in the middle, and the Homer on the right—and that Ruffo himself may have suggested the inclusion of Homer's bust and Alexander on the medal, with the formation of an ensemble in mind.

    Otto Benesch. "Rembrandt and Ancient History." Art Quarterly 22 (Winter 1959), p. 328.

    Ludwig Goldscheider. Rembrandt: Paintings, Drawings, and Etchings. London, 1960, pp. 175–76, pl. 77, erroneously concludes that the picture "has been considerably cut away at the sides".

    The Collection of Twenty-Four Old Master Paintings. Parke-Bernet, New York. 1961, pp. 26–28, no. 7, ill. p. 29 and frontispiece (color).

    Alfred Frankfurter. "Editorial: On Quality." Art News 60 (December 1961), p. 27.

    M. Muller. "'Rembrandts Curieuse Saecken'." Gedenkschrift ter herinnering aan het vijftigjarig bestaan van museum het Rembrandthuis (June 10, 1961), p. 43, ill. p. 36 (cropped).

    Helen Comstock. "The Connoisseur in America." Connoisseur 150 (August 1962), p. 277.

    Delphine Fitz Darby. "Ribera and the Wise Men." Art Bulletin 44 (December 1962), p. 303.

    Theodore Rousseau. "Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20 (January 1962), pp. 149–56, ill. on cover (color) [reprinted in Dutch in De Kroniek van de Vriendenkring van het Rembrandthuis 17 (April 28, 1963), pp. 35–45, ill. p. 21].

    Francis Spar. "La lettre d'information." Connaissance des arts 119 (January 1962), p. 35, ill.

    Francis Haskell. Patrons and Painters: A Study in the Relations between Italian Art and Society in the Age of the Baroque. New York, 1963, pp. 209–10, pl. 35a.

    Julius S. Held. Rembrandt and the Book of Tobit. Northampton, Mass., 1964, p. 25.

    Jakob Rosenberg. Rembrandt: Life & Work. rev. ed. London, 1964, pp. 278–83, 317, fig. 242.

    Konrad Kraft. "Der behelmte Alexander der Große." Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte 15 (1965), pp. 7–9, believes that the gold medallion depicts Athena, not Alexander.

    Kurt Bauch. Rembrandt Gemälde. Berlin, 1966, p. 12, pl. 207.

    Kenneth Clark. Rembrandt and the Italian Renaissance. London, 1966, p. 78, fig. 71, believes the bust of Homer had particular significance for Rembrandt, who "turned again and again to the theme of blindness".

    Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann in Encyclopedia of World Art. 11, New York, 1966, cols. 929–30.

    Jakob Rosenberg and Seymour Slive in Dutch Art and Architecture: 1600 to 1800. Baltimore, 1966, pp. 71, 74, pl. 50A.

    Christopher White. Rembrandt and His World. new ed. New York, 1966, p. 104, ill.

    Mario Lepore. The Life, Times, and Art of Rembrandt. New York, 1967, pp. 62–63, ill. (color).

    J. A. Emmens. Rembrandt en de Regels van de Kunst. Utrecht, [1968], pp. 169–76, 203–5, fig. 51, states that the trio of Homer, Aristotle, and Alexander could have been intended to correspond to "ingenium" (inborn talent), "ars" (science of art), and "exercitatio" (practical training).

    Horst Gerson. Rembrandt Paintings. Amsterdam, 1968, pp. 138–39, 370, 499, no. 286, ill. pp. 111 (color) and 370.

    C. C. Cunningham in Rembrandt After Three Hundred Years. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. [Chicago], 1969, p. 18.

    H[orst]. Gerson. "The Rembrandt Exhibitions of 1969." Burlington Magazine 111 (December 1969), p. 781.

    A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt: The Complete Edition of the Paintings. 3rd ed. London, 1969, p. 594, no. 478, ill. p. 386.

    B[ob]. Haak. "De nachtelijke samenzwering van Claudius Civilis in het Schakerbos op de Rembrandttentoonstelling te Amsterdam." Antiek 4 (October 1969), p. 136.

    Bob Haak. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, His Time. New York, [1969], pp. 240–43, 311, fig. 403 (color).

    Julius S. Held. Rembrandt's "Aristotle" and other Rembrandt Studies. Princeton, 1969, pp. 3–44, figs. 1, 33 (overall and detail) and frontispiece (color), discusses the iconography.

    "Rembrandt: Portrait of a Master." Holland Herald 4, no. 8 (1969), p. 28, ill. p. 34.

    Paolo Lecaldano in L'opera pittorica completa di Rembrandt. Milan, 1969, pp. 114–15, no. 316, ill. p. 115 and colorpl. XXXVII.

    S. H. Levie. "The Fifth Rembrandt Exhibition at the Rijksmuseum." Connoisseur 172 (September 1969), p. 6.

    R. W. Scheller. "Rembrandt en de encyclopedische kunstkamer." Oud Holland 84 (1969), p. 128.

    Werner Sumowski. "Rembrandt 1669–1969, zur Amsterdamer Ausstellung." Pantheon 27, no. 6 (November–December 1969), p. 465.

    Annemarie A. E. Vels Heijn. "Eerbetoon aan Rembrandt, 1852–1956." Spiegel Historiael 4 (September 1969), p. 456, fig. 9.

    Ingvar Bergström. "Le Tricentenaire de Rembrandt." L'Oeil no. 183 (March 1970), p. 7.

    Vitale Bloch. Rembrandt Today. Amsterdam, 1970, pp. 45–46.

    Jacques Foucart in Le siècle de Rembrandt: Tableaux hollandais des collections publiques françaises. Exh. cat., Petit Palais. Paris, 1970, p. 182, under no. 178.

    Francis Haskell. "The Benjamin Altman Bequest." Metropolitan Museum Journal 3 (1970), p. 263.

    Eduard Hüttinger. "Rembrandt 1969: l'avvenimento più importante dell'anno." Arte illustrata 3 (January–February 1970), p. 8, fig. 5.

    Calvin Tomkins. Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, pp. 171–72, 191, 271, 335–39, 349 [rev., enl. ed., 1989, pp. 171–72, 191, 271, 335–39, 349, 363].

    Henri Zerner. "Le second siècle du Metropolitan Museum." L'Oeil nos. 188–89 (August–September 1970), p. 14, colorpl. 3.

    Jan Bialostocki. "Review of Ref. Held 1969." Kunstchronik 24 (December 1971), pp. 370–72.

    I. Linnik in Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn: Paintings from Soviet Museums. Leningrad [St. Petersburg], 1971, unpaginated, under no. 27.

    Raymond Charmet et al. "Les Voies secrètes de la peinture: Rembrandt, la lumière de l'âme." Jardin des arts no. 215 (October–November 1972), p. 33, ill. (color).

    Julius S. Held and Donald Posner. 17th and 18th Century Art: Baroque Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., [1972], p. 248, fig. 259.

    Jakob Rosenberg and Seymour Slive in Dutch Art and Architecture: 1600 to 1800. rev. ed. Harmondsworth, England, 1972, pp. 121, 126, fig. 83.

    Everett Fahy in "Paintings, Drawings." The Wrightsman Collection. 5, [New York], 1973, p. 116.

    Julián Gállego and Frédéric Mégret. "Le XVIIIe siècle en France et en Italie." La grande histoire de la peinture. 11, [Geneva], 1973, p. 33.

    Julián Gállego and Frédéric Mégret. "Le Siècle d'or en Hollande." La grande histoire de la peinture. 10, [Geneva], 1973, ill. p. 19.

    Julius S. Held. "Rembrandt and the Classical World." Rembrandt After Three Hundred Years. Chicago, 1973, pp. 53, 57, 63.

    Seymour Slive. "Rembrandt's Teachers and Contemporaries." Rembrandt After Three Hundred Years. Chicago, 1973, pp. 124–25.

    Philip Hendy. European and American Paintings in the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 1974, p. 198.

    A. Pigler. Barockthemen: Eine Auswahl von Verzeichnissen zur Ikonographie des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts. 2nd ed. [first ed. 1956]. Budapest, 1974, vol. 2, pp. 323–24.

    Margaretta Salinger in "The Price Was Not Too High." The Chase, the Capture: Collecting at the Metropolitan. New York, 1975, pp. 202–4, fig. 52.

    Christopher Wright. Rembrandt and His Art. New York, 1975, pp. 76, 84, pl. 60.

    Christopher Brown in Art in Seventeenth Century Holland. Exh. cat., National Gallery. London, 1976, p. 75, under no. 93.

    Edward Fowles. Memories of Duveen Brothers. London, 1976, p. 40.

    Myra Nan Rosenfeld. "Problems of Iconography in Italian Painting." Apollo 103 (May 1976), p. 387, erroneously states that it was in Ruffo's collection in Rome.

    Herbert Wiesner. Master Painters of Holland: Dutch Painting in the Seventeenth Century. New York, 1976, colorpl. 69.

    J. Bolten and H. Bolten-Rempt. The Hidden Rembrandt. Milan, 1977, pp. 130–36, 151, 194, no. 406, ill. pp. 131 (color), 194.

    B[en]. P. J. Broos. Index to the Formal Sources of Rembrandt's Art. Maarssen, The Netherlands, 1977, p. 48.

    Felton Gibbons. Catalogue of Italian Drawings in the Art Museum, Princeton University. Princeton, 1977, vol. 1, p. 98, under no. 256.

    Seiro Mayekawa and Mamoru Kaneshige. Rembrandt. Tokyo, 1977, colorpl. 47.

    Anthony Bailey. Rembrandt's House. Boston, 1978, pp. 105, 171, 202, 209.

    Kenneth Clark. An Introduction to Rembrandt. New York, 1978, p. 102, fig. 110.

    David M. Robb Jr. "Rembrandt's 'Portrait of a Young Jew'." Apollo 107 (January 1978), p. 46.

    A. B. de Vries et al. Rembrandt in the Mauritshuis. Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands, 1978, pp. 170–72, 174, 176 n. 3, pp. 222–23, fig. 141, notes that the historical source that combines the three figures of Homer, Aristotle, and Alexander is Plutarch's life of Alexander.

    Anne-Marie S. Logan. The "Cabinet" of the Brothers Gerard and Jan Reynst. Amsterdam, 1979, p. 106.

    Walter L. Strauss and Marjon van der Meulen. The Rembrandt Documents. New York, 1979, pp. 293, 315, 320, 457–58, 460, 490–91, 494, ill. pp. 316–17 (overall and detail).

    Christopher Brown. Second Sight: Titian, "Portrait of a Man"; Rembrandt, "Self-portrait at the Age of 34". Exh. cat., National Gallery. London, 1980, p. 9, ill. p. 10.

    Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 335, 340, fig. 606 (color).

    Michael Platt. "Aristotle Gazing." The St. John's Review 31 (January 1980), pp. 68–74, ill. (overall and details).

    François Duret-Robert. "New York—Bordeaux." Connaissance des arts no. 353 (July 1981), p. 76.

    Maryan W. Ainsworth et al. Art and Autoradiography: Insights into the Genesis of Paintings by Rembrandt, Van Dyck, and Vermeer. New York, 1982, pp. 51–52, 98–99 nn. 43–46, p. 103, pls. 31–34 (overall, x-ray radiograph, and autoradiographs) and colorpls. E, F (photomicrographs of paint cross sections), state that technical analysis reveals that although the composition was established from the outset, in the process of painting Rembrandt altered the costume—particularly the shoulders and sleeves—the position of the Alexander medal, and the books in the background.

    Edward C. Banfield. "Art Versus Collectibles." Harper's 265 (August 1982), p. 34.

    Jacques Foucart. Les peintures de Rembrandt au Louvre. Paris, 1982, p. 59.

    Yasuo Kamon et al. Rembrandt—from the Collection of the Hermitage Museum. Exh. cat., Bridgestone Museum of Art. Tokyo, 1982, unpaginated, introduction, under no. 9, fig. 21.

    H. Diane Russell. Claude Lorrain, 1600–1682. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1982, p. 463.

    Albert Blankert in The Impact of a Genius: Rembrandt, His Pupils and Followers in the Seventeenth Century. Exh. cat., Groninger Museum, Groningen. Amsterdam, 1983, p. 26.

    Christopher Brown. "Jan Lievens in Leiden and London." Burlington Magazine 125 (November 1983), p. 669.

    Olivia Gazzam Morrish. A History of the Society of the Four Arts, Palm Beach, Florida: A Narrative of Significant Events from 1936 to 1983. [Palm Beach?], n.d., unpaginated, ill. (gallery installation photograph).

    Christopher White in Rembrandt in Eighteeenth-Century England. Exh. cat., Yale Center for British Art, Yale University. [New Haven], 1983, pp. 37, 44, no. 80 and under no. 43.

    Margaret Deutsch Carroll. "Rembrandt 'Aristotle': Exemplary Beholder." Artibus et Historiae no. 10 (1984), pp. 35–56, figs. 1, 9 (overall and detail).

    Bob Haak. The Golden Age: Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. New York, 1984, p. 60, fig. 68.

    Ger Luijten. "'De veelheid en de eelheid': een Rijksmuseum Schmidt-Degener." Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 35 (1984), pp. 379, 406 n. 156, fig. 29.

    Thomas E. Norton. 100 Years of Collecting in America: The Story of Sotheby Parke Bernet. New York, 1984, pp. 174–75, ill. (color).

    H. R. Hoetink and N. J. Sluijter-Seijffert in The Royal Picture Gallery, Mauritshuis. Amsterdam, 1985, p. 270, under no. 76.

    Gary Schwartz. Rembrandt, His Life, His Paintings. New York, 1985, pp. 280, 301–6, 308, 316, 348, fig. 334 (color).

    Oreste Ferrari. "L'iconografia dei filosofi antichi nella pittura del sec. XVII in Italia." Storia dell'arte 57 (1986), pp. 108, 110, 128.

    Julius S. Held in Rembrandt and the Bible. Exh. cat., Sogo Museum of Art, Yokohama. [Tokyo], 1986, pp. 27, 31–32.

    David Mannings in Reynolds. Exh. cat., Royal Academy of Arts, London. New York, 1986, p. 166, fig. 48 (detail), under no. 4.

    D. Stephen Pepper in The Age of Correggio and the Carracci: Emilian Painting of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Exh. cat.Washington, 1986, p. 326.

    Colin Simpson. Artful Partners: Bernard Berenson and Joseph Duveen. New York, 1986, pp. 121, 297 [British ed., "The Partnership: The Secret Association of Bernard Berenson and Joseph Duveen," London, 1987].

    Peter C. Sutton. A Guide to Dutch Art in America. Grand Rapids, Mich., 1986, pp. 179, 182, fig. 258.

    Christian Tümpel. Rembrandt: Mythos und Methode. Königstein, 1986, pp. 287, 357, 361, 363–64, 368, 402, no. 108, ill. p. 360 (color).

    Svetlana [L.] Alpers. Rembrandt's Enterprise: The Studio and the Market. Chicago, 1988, pp. 22, 25–26, 81, 86, 91, 97, 104, 113, 129 n. 24, p. 147 n. 67, colorpls. 2–3 (details), fig. 1.20.

    David Bomford et al. Art in the Making: Rembrandt. Exh. cat., National Gallery. London, 1988, p. 15, fig. 13.

    John Gregory and Irena Zdanowicz. Rembrandt in the Collections of the National Gallery of Victoria. Melbourne, 1988, pp. 60, 74 n. 20.

    Charles L. Mee Jr. Rembrandt's Portrait: A Biography. New York, 1988, pp. 238–47.

    H. Perry Chapman. "Expression, Temperament, and Imagination in Rembrandt's Earliest Self-portraits." Art History 12 (June 1989), p. 170.

    Shelley Karen Perlove. Impressions of Faith: Rembrandt's Biblical Etchings. Exh. cat., Mardigian Library, University of Michigan. Dearborn, Mich., 1989, pp. 30–31.

    Annemarie Vels Heijn. Rembrandt. London, 1989, unpaginated, no. 35, ill. (color).

    H. Perry Chapman. Rembrandt's Self-portraits: A Study in Seventeenth-Century Identity. Princeton, 1990, pp. 28, 31, 93.

    Milton Esterow. "Masterpiece Theater." Art News 89 (Summer 1990), p. 134, ill. (color).

    Walter Liedtke. "Dutch Paintings in America: The Collectors and Their Ideals." Great Dutch Paintings from America. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis, The Hague. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1990, pp. 36, 40, 48, 55.

    Emmanuel Starcky. Rembrandt. London, 1990, pp. 31, 106–7, ill. (color).

    Peter C. Sutton in Ben Broos. "Recent Patterns of Public and Private Collecting of Dutch Art." Great Dutch Paintings from America. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis. The Hague, 1990, p. 104.

    Marjolein de Boer. Bredius, Rembrandt en het Mauritshuis!!!. The Hague, 1991, pp. 80–81, under no. 13, fig. 1.

    Richard Brilliant. Portraiture. Cambridge, Mass., 1991, pp. 80–82, fig. 32.

    Christopher Brown et al. "Paintings." Rembrandt: The Master & His Workshop. Exh. cat., Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. 1, New Haven, 1991, pp. 258, 260–61, under no. 43.

    Pierre Cabanne. Rembrandt. [Paris], 1991, p. 14, ill. (color).

    S. A. C. Dudok van Heel. "'Gestommel' in het Huis van Rembrandt van Rijn." Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis no. 1 (1991), p. 4, notes that Rembrandt's output in 1653 was limited due to work being done in the house of his neighbor, Daniel Pinto.

    Julius S. Held. Rembrandt Studies. Princeton, 1991, pp. 191–93.

    Jan Kelch. "Paintings." Rembrandt: The Master & His Workshop. Exh. cat., Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. 1, New Haven, 1991, p. 250, under no. 41, fig. 41a, states that Rembrandt must have recalled this work when he painted the drapery for "Flora" (MMA 26.101.10) in the folowing year.

    Martin Bailey. "Rembrandt's 'Alexander the Great': A Salutary Warning." Apollo, n.s., 136 (July 1992), p. 35.

    Christopher Brown and Ashok Roy. "Rembrandt's 'Alexander the Great'." Burlington Magazine 134 (May 1992), pp. 286, 288, 291, 293, 296–97, fig. 10 (paint cross-section), argue that the Glasgow painting, not the Aristotle, was the first work made for Ruffo by Rembrandt.

    Görel Cavalli-Björkman in Rembrandt och hans Tid: Människan i Centrum. Exh. cat., Nationalmuseum. Stockholm, 1992, p. 174, ill.

    Colnaghi in America: A Survey to Commemorate the First Decade of Colnaghi New York. New York, 1992, p. 22.

    Jo Kirby. "A Note on the Seventeenth-Century 'palmo' in the Context of Don Antonio Ruffo's Collection." Burlington Magazine 134 (May 1992), p. 298, argues that the measurements of paintings given in Ruffo documents are not exact but were meant to serve only as guides, and that attempts to calculate the original dimensions of this work should therefore not be taken too seriously.

    Karla Langedijk. Die Selbstbildnisse der holländischen und flämischen Künstler in der Galleria degli Autoritratti der Uffizien in Florenz. Florence, 1992, p. 57, suggests that the composition of Philips Koninck's self-portrait in the Uffizi was inspired by this work.

    Leonard J. Slatkes. Rembrandt: Catalogo completo dei dipinti. Florence, 1992, pp. 175–76, no. 95, ill. (color).

    Ben Broos. Intimacies & Intrigues: History Painting in the Mauritshuis. The Hague, 1993, pp. 269–71, 277, fig. 1.

    Herbert T. Kalmus with Eleanore King Kalmus. Mr. Technicolor. Absecon, N.J., 1993, p. 89.

    Lucien Braun. Iconographie et philosophie. Strasbourg, 1994, pp. 29, 164, ill. p. 181.

    Annemarie Beunen. "Abraham Casembroot, een Nederlandse schilder in het Sicilië van de zeventiende eeuw." Oud Holland 109, no. 1/2 (1995), pp. 34, 47–48.

    Ben Broos. "Rembrandts Schatkamer." Tableau 18 (November 1995), p. 72, fig. 10.

    Jeroen Giltaij in "Paintings, Drawings, and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, [1995], pp. 66, 68.

    Walter Liedtke in "Paintings, Drawings, and Prints: Art-Historical Perspectives." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, [1995], pp. 5, 31, 65–70, 72, 115–16, no. 11, ill. (color).

    Gary Schwartz. "Truth in Labeling." Art in America 83 (December 1995), pp. 54–55, ill. p. 57 (color).

    Seymour Slive. Dutch Painting 1600–1800. New Haven, 1995, pp. 84, 90, fig. 102.

    Hubert von Sonnenburg. "Paintings: Problems and Issues." Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1, New York, 1995, pp. 6, 24, 31–32, 34–35, 50, 56–57, 59, figs. 26–27, 54–57, 72–75 (overall, color details, details before and after cleaning, x-radiograph details, and photographic reconstruction), and ill. on cover (color detail).

    Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century. Washington, 1995, pp. 244, 310, fig. 1.

    B[en]. P. J. Broos in The Dictionary of Art. 26, New York, 1996, p. 164.

    Wayne Franits. "Domesticity, Privacy, Civility, and the Transformation of Adriaen van Ostade's art." Images of Women in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art: Domesticity and the Representation of the Peasant. Athens, Ga., 1996, p. 16, fig. 10.

    Herbert Lank. "Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship." Studies in Conservation 41, no. 2 (1996), p. 124.

    Walter A. Liedtke in Timken Museum of Art: European Works of Art, American Paintings, and Russian Icons in the Putnam Foundation Collection. San Diego, 1996, pp. 89, 93.

    Walter Watson. "Rembrandt's Aristotle." Hypotheses: Neo-Aristotelian Analysis no. 18 (Summer 1996), pp. 6–10.

    Albert Blankert. Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Victoria. Melbourne, 1997, pp. 40, 55 n. 28.

    Albert Blankert and Marleen Blokhuis in Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Victoria. Melbourne, 1997, pp. 171, 172 n. 17, under no. 24.

    Marleen Blokhuis in Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Victoria. Melbourne, 1997, pp. 27–28, 30 n. 74, fig. 8 (color).

    Paul Broekhoff and Michiel Franken. "Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship." Simiolus 25, no. 1 (1997), pp. 78, 81.

    Ben Broos in Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Victoria. Melbourne, 1997, p. 378, under no. 97.

    Jeroen Giltaij in Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Victoria. Melbourne, 1997, p. 134, under no. 15.

    Walter Liedtke. "Style in Dutch Art." Looking at Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art: Realism Reconsidered. Cambridge, 1997, p. 126, fig. 80.

    Peter C. Sutton in Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Victoria. Melbourne, 1997, p. 318, under no. 71.

    Uwe Wieczorek. "Dramaturgie des Augen-Blicks: Äußere Wahrnemung und innere Erkenntnis im Werk Rembrandts." Belvedere no. 1 (1997), p. 18, fig. 15 (color), erroneously as an instance of a work commissioned from Rembrandt for which the subject was dictated by the patron.

    Ann Jensen Adams in Rembrandt's "Bathsheba Reading King David's Letter". Cambridge, 1998, p. 5.

    Svetlana Alpers. "Not Bathsheba: I. The Painter and the Model." Rembrandt's "Bathsheba Reading King David's Letter". Cambridge, 1998, p. 152.

    Walter Liedtke. "Rembrandt in Australia." Apollo 147 (February 1998), p. 55.

    Walter Liedtke. "Albert Blankert et al., 'Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact'." Simiolus 26, no. 4 (1998), pp. 313, 316.

    Cynthia Saltzman. Portrait of Dr. Gachet: The Story of a Van Gogh Masterpiece. New York, 1998, pp. 241, 299.

    Gary Schwartz. "'Though deficient in beauty': A Documentary History and Interpretation of Rembrandt's 1654 Painting of Bathsheba." Rembrandt's "Bathsheba Reading King David's Letter". Cambridge, 1998, p. 203 n. 49.

    Ernst van de Wetering. "Rembrandt's Bathsheba: The Object and its Transformations." Rembrandt's "Bathsheba Reading King David's Letter". Cambridge, 1998, pp. 32, 41–42.

    Bob van den Boogert in Rembrandt's Treasures. Exh. cat., Rembrandt House Museum. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1999, pp. 77, 119, fig. 78.

    David Freedberg. "The Bosom of History." New Republic (December 6, 1999), p. 50, states that Schama [see Ref. 1999] "pushes the available evidence much too far in his efforts" to reidentify Aristotle as Apelles.

    Jeroen Giltaij. Ruffo en Rembrandt. Zutphen, The Netherlands, 1999, pp. 10, 43–51, 60, 65, 67, 73, 76–87, 89–94, 97, 103–4, 106–8, 111, 114, 125–26, 176 nn. 126–28, p. 177 n. 147, p. 180 n. 308, fig. 10.

    Simon Schama. Rembrandt's Eyes. New York, 1999, pp. 567, 582–91, 594, 720 nn. 18, 23, 29, 32, ill. (color), argues that it depicts Apelles with a bust of Homer.

    Simon Schama. "On Rembrandt's House and the Collection of the Artist." Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis nos. 1–2 (1999), p. 14, fig. 6.

    Jean Strouse. Morgan: American Financier. New York, 1999, p. 568.

    Harry Berger Jr. Fictions of the Pose: Rembrandt Against the Italian Renaissance. Stanford, 2000, pp. 510, 610 n. 24.

    Benjamin Binstock. "Review of Ref. Schama 1999." Art Bulletin 82 (June 2000), p. 365, rejects Schama's suggestion that it depicts Apelles.

    Maria Concetta Calabrese. Nobiltà, mecenatismo e collezionismo a Messina nel XVII secolo. Catania, 2000, p. 20.

    Alan Chong. Rembrandt Creates Rembrandt: Art and Ambition in Leiden, 1629–1631. Exh. cat., Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 2000, p. 119, under no. 16.

    S. Paul Crenshaw. "Rembrandt's Bankruptcy." PhD diss., New York University, 2000, pp. 198–99 n. 542, p. 201, fig. 29 [published in part in "Rembrandt's Disputes with His Patrons," Dutch Crossing 25 (Winter 2001), pp. 177–78, 196–97 nn. 68, 70].

    Ger Luijten. Rembrandt's Etchings. Amsterdam, 2000, p. 23.

    Eric M. Moormann in Greek Gods and Heroes in the Age of Rubens and Rembrandt. Exh. cat., National Gallery/Alexandros Soutzos Museum. Athens, 2000, p. 32, fig. 10.

    Mariët Westermann. Rembrandt. London, 2000, pp. 241–45, 247, 253, 257, 293, fig. 159 (color).

    Ernst van de Wetering in La luce del vero: Caravaggio, La Tour, Rembrandt, Zurbarán. Exh. cat., Galleria d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Bergamo. Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 2000, p. 156.

    Christopher Wright. Rembrandt. Paris, 2000, pp. 68, 70, fig. 55 (color).

    Walter Liedtke et al. Vermeer and the Delft School. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2001, pp. 381, 388, 396, 438 n. 9, notes that Rembrandt "may have had the 'paragone' of painting and sculpture in mind when he compared . . . the senses of touch and sight" in this work.

    Ronni Baer. The Poetry of Everyday Life: Dutch Painting in Boston. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston, 2002, p. 42.

    Charles Ford. "Works do not Make an Oeuvre: Rembrandt's Self-Portraits as a Category." Rethinking Rembrandt. Boston, 2002, p. 125.

    Jeroen Giltaij et al. Rembrandt Rembrandt. Exh. cat., Kyoto National Museum. Kyoto, 2002, pp. 127, 202–3, 209 n. 126, no. 29, ill. (color, overall and detail) [German ed., Frankfurt, 2003, pp. 159, 247 n. 282].

    Amy Golahny. "Homer, Raphael, Rembrandt: Reading 'Vulcan's Net'." Rethinking Rembrandt. Boston, 2002, pp. 86–87.

    Jodi Cranston in Raphael, Cellini & A Renaissance Banker: The Patronage of Bindo Altoviti. Exh. cat., Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Boston, 2003, p. 127, fig. 66.

    Rosanna De Gennaro. Per il collezionismo del Seicento in Sicilia: L"Inventario" di Antonio Ruffo principe della scaletta. Pisa, 2003, pp. XX, 129, publishes the Ruffo inventory.

    Steven Nadler. Rembrandt's Jews. Chicago, 2003, p. 5.

    Jaco Rutgers. "'Sijn'kunst-faem over 't spits der Alpen heen gevlogen?' Rembrandts naam en faam in Italië in de zeventiende eeuw." Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis nos. 1–2 (2003), pp. 10, 18 n. 75, fig. 7.

    John Brewer. "The Art of the Deal." New York Review (October 7, 2004), p. 28.

    Jeroen Giltaij in Percorsi d'arte: tra vestigia dei Messapi il collezionismo dei Ruffo e l'evoluzione pittorica di Mino Delle Site. Exh. cat., convento di San Domenico, Cavallino. Salerno, 2004, p. 62.

    Walter Liedtke. "The Meaning of Rembrandt's 'Aristotle with a Bust of Homer'." Collected Opinions: Essays on Netherlandish Art in Honour of Alfred Bader. London, 2004, pp. 73–87, fig. 1 (color).

    Catherine B. Scallen. Rembrandt, Reputation, and the Practice of Connoisseurship. Amsterdam, 2004, pp. 197, 204, 207–8, 361 n. 58, p. 363 n. 99, fig. 48.

    Meryle Secrest. Duveen: A Life in Art. New York, 2004, pp. 71, 77, 120, 278–80, 476, ill.

    Keith Christiansen. "Going for Baroque: Bringing 17th-Century Masters to the Met." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 62 (Winter 2005), p. 41, fig. 39 (color).

    Everett Fahy in The Wrightsman Pictures. New York, 2005, p. 27.

    Jeroen Giltaij. "Nieuws omtrent Ruffo en Rembrandt." Kroniek van het Rembrandthuis nos. 1–2 (2005), pp. 47–49, fig. 1.

    Susan Donahue Kuretsky. Time and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Exh. cat., Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center. Poughkeepsie, 2005, p. 267 n. 3.

    Walter Liedtke. "Gerard de Lairesse and Jacob de Wit 'in situ'." The Learned Eye: Regarding Art, Theory, and the Artist's Reputation: Essays for Ernst van de Wetering. Amsterdam, 2005, pp. 192, 202 n. 4.

    Esmée Quodbach. "American Collections Rich in Dutch Art: de eerste Amerikaanse reis van Cornelis Hofstede de Groot." Van Cuyp tot Rembrandt: de verzameling Cornelis Hofstede de Groot. Exh. cat., Groninger Museum. Groningen, 2005, pp. 74, 305 n. 66.

    Peter C. Sutton in Rembrandt's Late Religious Portraits. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2005, pp. 73, 130, under nos. 1 and 17.

    Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. in Rembrandt's Late Religious Portraits. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2005, p. 76, fig. 3, under no. 2.

    Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. in Rembrandt's Apostles. Exh. cat., Timken Museum of Art. San Diego, 2005, p. 16, fig. 6 [reprint of Ref. Wheelock 2005, exh. cat. Washington].

    Duncan Bull in Rembrandt—Caravaggio. Exh. cat., Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2006, pp. 20, 22, 29, fig. 20 (color).

    Paul Crenshaw. Rembrandt's Bankruptcy. Cambridge, 2006, pp. 48, 125–26, 128, 148–49, 170 n. 25, p. 189 nn. 64–66, 68, p. 190 n. 71, p. 192 nn. 26, 31–32, fig. 27 [expanded from Ref. Crenshaw 2000].

    Sylvia Hochfield. "Rembrandt: Myth, Legend, Truth." Art News 105 (Summer 2006), p. 157, ill. p. 156 (color).

    Friso Lammertse in Uylenburgh & Son: Art and Commerce from Rembrandt to De Lairesse. Exh. cat., Dulwich Picture Gallery. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2006, p. 279 n. 350.

    Lene Bøgh Rønberg in Rembrandt? The Master and His Workshop. Exh. cat., Statens Museum for Kunst. [Copenhagen], 2006, p. 101 n. 68.

    Christian Tümpel. Rembrandt. 2nd ed. Reinbek bei Hamburg, 2006, pp. 131–33, 161 n. 117, ill. (color).

    Ernst van de Wetering in Rembrandt? The Master and His Workshop. Exh. cat., Statens Museum for Kunst. [Copenhagen], 2006, pp. 45–46.

    Ernst van de Wetering in Rembrandt: Quest of a Genius. Exh. cat., Museum Het Rembrandthuis, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2006, pp. 56, 59, fig. 58 (color) [Dutch ed., "Rembrandt: Zoektocht van een genie"].

    Marieke de Winkel. Fashion and Fancy: Dress and Meaning in Rembrandt's Paintings. Amsterdam, 2006, pp. 169, 210, 216, 311 n. 154, fig. 104 (color).

    Walter Liedtke. Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, vol. 1, pp. ix, xii, xvii, 164, 373 n. 6, ill. (color, frontispiece); vol. 2, pp. 549, 604, 617, 629–54, 661–62, 683, 736, 762, 848, 878, no. 151, colorpl. 151, figs. 170–71 (overall and color detail).

    Esmée Quodbach. "The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 65 (Summer 2007), pp. 22–25, 27–28, 53, 55, 70, figs. 21 (Huntington library photograph), 24 (color), 61 (New York Times photograph).

    Rosanna De Gennaro. "Da Rubens a Jordaens d'Anversa, presenze fiamminghe nella collezione messinese di Antonio Ruffo principe della Scaletta." La "Konstkamer" italiana: i "Fiamminghi" nelle collezioni italiane all'età di Rubens. 76, 2008, pp. 37, 47–50, 52, 61, fig. 4, discusses Abraham Casembrot's involvement in its commission.

    Dagmar Hirschfelder. Tronie und Porträt in der niederländischen Malerei des 17. Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 2008, pp. 129, 189, 424, no. 444, pl. 94.

    Nicholas Penny. "Venice 1540–1600." The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings. 2, London, 2008, pp. 459–60 n. 26.

    Alejandro Vergara in Rembrandt, pintor de historias. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2008, pp. 49–50, 219, fig. 20 (color).

    Keith Christiansen in Philippe de Montebello and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977–2008. New York, 2009, p. 36.

    Walter Liedtke in Philippe de Montebello and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1977–2008. New York, 2009, p. 40, fig. 50 (color detail).

    Walter Liedtke. "The Milkmaid" by Johannes Vermeer. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2009, p. 6.

    Helen Langdon in Salvator Rosa. Exh. cat., Dulwich Picture Gallery. London, 2010, pp. 39, 200.

    Helen Langdon and Xavier F. Salomon in Salvator Rosa. Exh. cat., Dulwich Picture Gallery. London, 2010, p. 123.

    Elena Phipps. "Cochineal Red: The Art History of a Color." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 67 (Winter 2010), pp. 35, 37, fig. 60 (color).

    George S. Keyes in Rembrandt in America: Collecting and Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., North Carolina Museum of Art. New York, 2011, p. 74.

    Renato Ruotolo in Artemisia Gentileschi: storia di una passione. Exh. cat., Palazzo Reale, Milan. Pero (Milan), 2011, p. 128, fig. 5 (color) [English ed., "Artemisia Gentileschi: The Story of a Passion"].

    Dennis P. Weller in Rembrandt in America: Collecting and Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., North Carolina Museum of Art. New York, 2011, p. 20, fig. 2 (color).

    Important Old Master Paintings. Sotheby's, New York. January 30, 2014, p. 42, under no. 11.

  • See also
    In the Museum
    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History