Art/ Collection/ Art Object

Mont Sainte-Victoire

Artist:
Paul Cézanne (French, Aix-en-Provence 1839–1906 Aix-en-Provence)
Date:
ca. 1902–6
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
22 1/2 x 38 1/4 in. (57.2 x 97.2 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
The Walter H. and Leonore Annenberg Collection, Gift of Walter H. and Leonore Annenberg, 1994, Bequest of Walter H. Annenberg, 2002
Accession Number:
1994.420
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 823
Cézanne worked on this, one of the grandest pictures of Mont Sainte-Victoire, over a considerable length of time, enlarging the canvas in order to extend the view at the right and in the foreground.
the artist's estate (1906–no later than March 1907; sold for Fr 5,000 to Vollard); [Ambroise Vollard, Paris, 1907–35; stock book B, no. 4478, as "paysage. Panorama de Ste Victoire, 55 x 95"; valued at Fr 12,000 upon purchase, in shares with Bernheim-Jeune, Paris; reverted to Vollard's sole ownership from unknown date until 1935; sold to Wildenstein]; [Wildenstein, New York, 1935–64; sold on May 8 to Annenberg]; Walter H. and Leonore Annenberg, Rancho Mirage, Calif. (1964–94; jointly with MMA, 1994–his d. 2002)
London. Tate Gallery. "The Annenberg Collection," September 2–October 8, 1969, no. 9 (as Mont Sainte-Victoire).

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Impressionism & Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection," May 21–September 17, 1989, unnumbered cat.

Washington. National Gallery of Art. "Masterpieces of Impressionism & Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection," May 6–August 5, 1990, unnumbered cat.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Impressionism & Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection," August 16–November 11, 1990, unnumbered cat.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Impressionism & Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection," June 4–October 13, 1991, unnumbered cat.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde," September 13, 2006–January 7, 2007, no. 49.

THIS WORK MAY NOT BE LENT, BY TERMS OF ITS ACQUISITION BY THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART.

Lionello Venturi. Cézanne: son art—son oeuvre. Paris, 1936, vol. 1, pp. 64, 236, no. 804; vol. 2, pl. 266, no. 804, dates it 1904–6; erroneously locates it as still in Vollard's collection.

John Rewald and Léo Marschutz. "Cézanne et la Provence." Le Point 4 (August 1936), ill. p. 22, call it "La Ste-Victoire vue du chemin des lauves" and date it about 1905; erroneously locate it as still in Vollard's collection.

Fritz Novotny. Cézanne und das Ende der Wissenschaftlichen Perspektive. Vienna, 1938, pp. 11–12, 204, no. 94, erroneously locates it as still in Vollard's collection.

Liliane Guerry. Cézanne et l'expression de l'espace. [1st ed.; 2nd ed., 1966]. Paris, 1950, p. 194 n. 47.

Kurt Badt. The Art of Cézanne. [German ed., 1956]. Berkeley, 1965, pp. 163, 310.

C[harles]. F[erdinand]. Ramuz. Cézanne: Form. Lausanne, 1968, colorpl. 28, dates it 1904–6.

M. Roy Fisher. The Annenberg Collection. Exh. cat., Tate Gallery. London, 1969, unpaginated, no. 9, ill. (color), erroneously locates it as formerly in the Montag collection and a private collection, Switzerland; notes that the format of this painting differs from others of the same subject, speculating that Cézanne increased the width of this canvas by nearly one-third and added several inches to the bottom; compares it to a watercolor that is also enlarged on the right (V917); remarks that our painting "may well represent Cézanne's fullest statement of the theme".

Sandra Orienti in L'opera completa di Cézanne. [French ed., 1975; English ed., 1985]. Milan, 1970, pp. 120–21, no. 765, ill.

François Daulte. "Une collection impressionniste à Regent's Park." L'Oeil (February 1974), pp. 40–41, figs. 8 (installation photo), 10.

A. Barskaya. Paul Cézanne. Leningrad [St. Petersburg], 1975, p. 198, ill. p. 191, dates it 1900–1906.

Theodore Reff in Cézanne: The Late Work. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1977, p. 27, colorpl. 125.

John Rewald in Cézanne: The Late Work. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1977, pp. 98, 412 under no. 105 [French ed., "Cézanne, les dernières années (1895–1906)," Paris, 1988, p. 198 under no. 85], notes that only in this painting and the related watercolor (V917) "did Cézanne endeavor to represent the full width of the panorama dominated by Sainte-Victoire," adding strips to both the canvas and paper; mentions another watercolor (V1033) showing the same group of farmhouses.

Lawrence Gowing in Cézanne: The Late Work. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1977, p. 68.

Geneviève Monnier in Cézanne: The Late Work. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1977, p. 116 [French ed., "Cézanne, les dernières années (1895–1906)," Paris, 1978, p. 45], notes that it is painted in oil greatly diluted with turpentine, relating this technique to the influence of Cézanne's watercolors on his late oils.

Judith Wechsler. The Interpretation of Cézanne. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1981, p. 50.

Jean Arrouye. "Le dépassement de la nostalgie." Cézanne, ou la peinture en jeu. Limoges, 1982, p. 131.

John Rewald. Paul Cézanne: The Watercolors, A Catalogue Raisonné. Boston, 1983, p. 239, under no. 594.

Robert Tiers. "Le testament de Paul Cézanne et l'inventaire des tableaux de sa succession, rue Boulegon à Aix en 1906." Gazette des beaux-arts 106 (November 1985), p. 178 n. 7.

Jacques Teboul. Les Victoires de Cézanne. Paris, 1988, p. 115, fig. 28 (color, overall and detail).

Denis Coutagne et al. Sainte-Victoire, Cézanne, 1990. Exh. cat., Musée Granet. Aix-en-Provence, 1990, colorpl. 204.

Joseph J. Rishel in Masterpieces of Impressionism & Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection. Ed. Colin B. Bailey, Joseph J. Rishel, and Mark Rosenthal. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1991, pp. 88–91, 187–88, ill. (color and black and white), dates it 1902–6; publishes a diagram of additions to the canvas based on the photograph of this painting published in Ref. Venturi 1936; notes that Cézanne painted some fifty-five images of the mountain, at least fourteen of these from his studio at Les Lauves; analyzes the development of this work, whose sections were added over a period of time, and its two related watercolors; proposes that Cézanne added to the composition to record an encompassing panoramic view and a sense of space through color.

Gary Tinterow. "Miracle au Met." Connaissance des arts no. 472 (June 1991), p. 39, ill. (color), dates it 1902–6.

Jérôme Coignard. "Le Salon de peinture de Mr. et Mrs. Annenberg." Beaux arts no. 92 (July–August 1991), p. 69.

Götz Adriani. Cézanne: Gemälde. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Tübingen. Cologne, 1993, p. 263 n. 1 [English ed., 1995].

Gary Tinterow in "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 1994–1995." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 53 (Fall 1995), pp. 4, 49, ill. (color).

C[harles]. F[erdinand]. Ramuz. Paul Cézanne. Lausanne, 1995, ill. p. 73 (color), dates it 1904–6.

Joseph J. Rishel in Cézanne. Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris. Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 468–69, 579, fig. 1 [French ed., Paris, 1995, pp. 469, 579, fig. 1], remarks that this composition drops "the viewer into the sweeping vista with no entry transition".

John Rewald, in collaboration with Walter Feilchenfeldt, and Jayne Warman. The Paintings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 536, 540, no. 915; vol. 2, p. 321, fig. 915.

Pavel Machotka. Cézanne: Landscape into Art. New Haven, 1996, p. 117.

Ira Berkow. "Jewels in the Desert." Art News 97 (May 1998), pp. 148–49, ill. (color, installation photo).

Hidemichi Tanaka. "Cézanne and Japonisme." Artibus et Historiae no. 44 (2001), p. 219 n. 43, discusses the possible influence of Hokusai's series "Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji" on Cézanne's thirty-six pictures of Mont Sainte-Victoire.

Mario Maffi in "Cézanne e il 'segreto' di Hemingway." Il Cézanne degli scrittori dei poeti e dei filosofi. Ed. Giovanni Cianci et al. Milan, 2001, p. 205, fig. 21, speculates that Hemingway saw this work in Paris and was influenced by Cézanne's Mont Sainte-Victoire series.

Jayne Warman in "A Dual Legacy: Cézanne - Rewald." Atelier Cézanne. [Aix-en-Provence], 2002, p. 173.

Gary Tinterow. "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 2002–2003." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 61 (Fall 2003), p. 35.

Joachim Pissarro. Pioneering Modern Painting: Cézanne & Pissarro 1865–1885. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 2005, p. 69, fig. 64 (color).

Jayne S. Warman in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Ed. Rebecca A. Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, pp. 344–45, no. 49, ill.

Ann Dumas in Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Ed. Rebecca A. Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, fig. 9 (color).

Philip Conisbee in Philip Conisbee and Denis Coutagne. Cézanne in Provence. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2006, p. 2, fig. 1 (color), calls it "Montagne Sainte-Victoire" and dates it 1902–6.

Denis Coutagne. Cézanne en vérité(s). [Arles], 2006, pp. 491–93.

Linda Nochlin. Courbet. New York, 2007, p. 221 n. 9.

Joseph J. Rishel in Masterpieces of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection. Ed. Susan Alyson Stein and Asher Ethan Miller. 4th rev. ed. [1st ed., 1989]. New York, 2009, pp. 165–71, no. 32, ill. (color).

Sandra Gianfreda. "The early 'Japonistes'." Monet, Gauguin, Van Gogh . . . "Japanese Inspirations" Museum Folkwang. Exh. cat., Museum Folkwang, Essen. Göttingen, 2014, p. 67.



Between about 1902 and 1906 Cézanne painted numerous views of Mont Sainte-Victoire in both oil and watercolor. Many, like the present picture, were executed in his studio at Les Lauves (see Rewald 1996, nos. 911–14, 916, 932; Rewald 1983, nos. 504, 587, 591, 593, 597, 599). Two watercolors showing the mountain from a similar vantage point are also related to our picture (both private collections, RWC 593 and 594.) The MMA also owns an earlier painting of Mont Sainte-Victoire, seen from a different viewpoint (1882–85; 29.100.64).
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