Art/ Collection/ Art Object

The Cloisters Cross

ca. 1150–60
Walrus ivory
Overall: 22 5/8 x 14 1/4in. (57.5 x 36.2cm) shaft: 12 3/8 x 1 11/16in. (31.4 x 4.3cm) shaft-thickness: 1 1/4in. (3.2cm) top piece: 8 1/8in. (20.6cm) Cross piece: 9 3/4in. (24.8cm) Central medallion: 2 5/8in. (6.7cm) Terminal plaque: Mark: 2 1/4 x 2 5/16in. (5.7 x 5.9cm) Terminal plaque: Luke: 2 5/16 x 2 1/8in. (5.9 x 5.4cm) Terminal plaque: John: 2 5/16 x 2 1/4in. (5.9 x 5.7cm) Thickness, each: 1 1/2in. (3.8cm) to: 1 5/8in. (4.1cm)
Credit Line:
The Cloisters Collection, 1963
Accession Number:
On view at The Met Cloisters in Gallery 14
One of the masterpieces of Romanesque art, this altar cross with some ninety-two figures and ninety-eight inscriptions is the vehicle for a complex iconographic program that is unrivaled in Christian art. On one side, the stylized trunk of a tree is superimposed on the Cross, and the terminals present scenes from the story of Jesus’ death and resurrection. On the other side, Hebrew prophets, each holding a scroll with his own words, surround the central, allegorical medallion of the Lamb of God, apparently being pierced by the personification of Synagogue. Symbols of the Evangelists, authors of the Gospels, appear on the terminals: the lion of Mark on the left, the ox of Luke on the right, and the eagle of John on the top; the angel of Matthew once on the bottom is lost.

It has often been suggested that the cross comes from the English abbey at Bury Saint Edmunds in Suffolk. The richness of subjects and the overall intellectual character suggest intense theological dialogue. Prominent among the inscriptions are several strong invectives against Jews. Though it is impossible to know precisely who commissioned this piece and with what aims, the cross offers some indication of the anti-Jewish sentiment prevalent in England at this time. Indeed, by the end of the thirteenth century, Jews were expelled from the country.

A. (central medallion)
On Scroll of Moses, Center:
(Et erit vita tua quasi pendens ante non credes vite tue, Vulgate, Deuteronomy 28:66, trans.: And thy life shall hang in doubt before thee: and thou...shalt have none assurance of thy life, King James Bible)

On Scroll, upper left:
(et sicut Moyses exaltavit serpente in deserto, ita exaltari oportet Filium Hominis,
Vulgate,John 3:14; trans: And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, King James Bible.)

On Scroll, lower left:
(Omnes Prophetae Testimonium Perhibent, Vulgate, Acts 10:43; trans.: To him give all the prophets witness, that through his name whosever believeth in him shall receive remission of sins., King James Bible)

scroll of reclining figure, top center:
(Quare futurus es velut vir vagus ut fortis qui non potest salvare? Vulgate, Jeremiah 14:9; trans.: Why wilt thou be as a wandering man, as a might man that can not save? Douay version)

scroll of figure, lower right:
(Quare ergo rubrum est inducentum tuum; et vestmenta tua sicut calcantium in torculari? Vulgate, Isaiah 63:2; trans.: Why then is thy apparel red, and thy garments like theirs that tread in the winepress: Douay version)

B. (Right Terminal Plaque)
On scroll at base of plaque:
(Et plangent eum plancti quasi...unigentum., Vulgate, Zacharias 12:10; trans.: ...and they shall mourn for him as one mourneth for his only son, King James Bible)

C. (Bottom Terminal Plaque)
On band across top:
(Prophetae et Testimonium Zacharias; refers to Zechariah 12:10, And they shall look upon me whom they have pierced... King James Bible. This prefigures John 19:37, They shall look on him whom they pierced, King James Bible)

E. (Left Terminal Plaque)
On Scroll of angel:
(Queritis Iesum Nazarenum crucifixum, Vulgate, Mark 16:6; trans.: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth which was crucified King James Bible)

F. (Top Piece)
On scroll of angel to left:
(Viri Galilaei, quid statis aspicientes in coelum? , Vulgate, Acts 1:11; trans.: Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? King James Bible)

On scroll of angel to right:
([Hic Iesus qui assumptus est a vobis in caelum], sic veniet quemadmodum vidistis eum euntem in caelum, Vulgate, Acts 1:11; trans.: This same Jesus which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven, King James Bible)

On scroll of High Priest, left:
(Noli scribere, Rex Judaeorum: sed quia ipse dixit; Rex Sum Judaeorum, Vulgate, John 19:21; trans.: Write not, The King of Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews, King James Bible)

On scroll of pilate, right:
(Quod scripsi scripsi, Vulgate, John 19:22; trans; What I have written, I have written, King James Bible)

(on cross title, continued)
Latin, (translit.: Jesus Nazarenus Rex Confessorum)

(on cross title, hand of God emerging from shell [corners of titulus cut off in ancient time])
(translation: Jesus of Nazarus, King, Confessor)

(on front of cross stem)
(trans.: Earth shakes, death is conquerered and bewails, from the opening sepulchre life surges forth, synagogue collapses after vain effort)

Front: Large Inscription
The hexameter on the front of the cross stem refers to the events that took place at the exact moment Christ died.
Ante Topic-Mimara, Zurich (sold 1963)
Mersmann, Wiltrud. "Das Elfenbeinkreuz der Sammlung Topic-Mimara." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch 25 (1963). pp. 7–108, figs. 1–2, 5, 7–9, 11, 16, 21, 28, 29, 33, 38–39, 41, 45–46, 53, 56, 67, 92–93, 97.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Ninety-Third Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year 1962-1963." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 22, no. 2 (October 1963). pp. 45, 75, 76, ill. front cover and p. 46.

Davis, Frank. "A Page for Collectors: The Bury St. Edmunds Cross." The Illustrated London News 245, no. 6528 (September 12, 1964). p. 383.

Carey, Arthur Graham. "Ivory and Gold." Good Work 27 (Autumn 1964). pp. 106–15.

Hoving, Thomas. "The Bury St. Edmunds Cross." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 22, no. 10 (June 1964). pp. 316–40, fig. 1–21, 24, 28, 34.

"Ninety-Fourth Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year 1963-1964." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 23, no. 2 (October 1964). p. 81.

Beckwith, John. "A Game of Draughts." In Studien zur Geschichte der europäischen Plastik: Festschrift Theodor Müller. Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1965. pp. 32, 36.

Hoving, Thomas. "The Enigma of the Ivory Cross." Presbyterian Life 8 (April 15, 1965). pp. 2–4.

Hoving, Thomas. "The Thread of Patronage: The Medieval Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Cloisters." Apollo 82, no. 43 (September 1965). p. 195, pl. XIV.

Rademacher, Franz. "Zu den frühesten Darstellungen der Auferstehung Christi." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 28, no. 3 (1965). pp. 204–7, 216, fig. 8.

Beckwith, John. The Adoration of the Magi in Whalebone. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1966. pp. 26–29, fig. 34.

Maffei, Fernanda de'. "Romanesque Art." In Encyclopedia of World Art. Vol. 13. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966. col. 464.

Graepler-Diehl, Ursula. "Eine Zeichnung des 11. Jahrhunderts im Codex Sangallensis 342." In Studien zur Buchmalerei und Goldschmiedekunst des Mittelalters: Festschrift für Karl Hermann Usener zum 60. Geburtstag am 19. August 1965. Marburg: Verlag des Kunstgeschichtlichen Seminars, 1967. pp. 174–75, fig. 9.

Swarzenski, Hanns. Monuments of Romanesque Art: the Art of Church Treasures in North-Western Europe. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967. p. 65, fig. 338, pl. 153.

Boase, T. S. R. English Art, 1100-1216. The Oxford History of English Art, Vol. 3. Revised ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968. pp. viii, 162 n. 3.

Hoffeld, Jeffrey M. "Adam's Two Wives." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 26, no. 10 (June 1968). p. 439, fig. 13.

Hoving, Thomas. "'The Game of Duplicity,' Art Forgery." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 26, no. 6 (February 1968). p. 245, fig. 6.

Longland, Sabrina. "Pilate Answered: What I Have Written I Have Written." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 26, no. 10 (June 1968). pp. 411–13, 421, fig. 1–3, 10.

Fillitz, Hermann. Das Mittelalter I. Propyläen Kunstgeschichte, Vol. 5. Berlin: Propylaën Verlag, 1969. no. 334a, p. 254, fig. 334.

Kohlhaussen, Heinrich. Europäisches Kunsthandwerk: Volume 1, Vorromanik und Romanik. Frankfurt: Umschau-Verlag, 1969. no. 109, p. XXXII.

Longland, Sabrina. "A Literary Aspect of the Bury St. Edmunds Cross." Metropolitan Museum Journal 2 (1969). pp. 45–74, fig. 1, 2, 4.

Longland, Sabrina. "The 'Bury St. Edmunds Cross' : Its Exceptional Place in English Twelfth-Century Art." The Connoisseur 172 (November 1969). pp. 163–73, fig. 6–9, 13, 16, 20.

McNally, Robert E. "The Imagination and Early Irish Biblical Exegesis." Annuale Mediaevale 10 (1969). pp. 19 n. 46, 26 n. 71.

Hoffmann, Konrad, ed. The Year 1200: A Centennial Exhibition at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 1. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1970. no. 60, pp. 52–56.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries. New York: Dutton Publishing, 1970. no. 123, p. 155.

Seiferth, Wolfgang S. Synagogue and Church in the Middle Ages: Two Symbols in Art and Literature. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1970. p. 98, fig. 65.

Tomkins, Calvin. Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1970. pp. 347-50.

Verdier, Philippe. "La grande croix de l'abbé Suger à Saint-Denis." Cahiers de civilisation médiévale 13 (1970). pp. 15, 24.

Sauerländer, Willibald. "Review of 'The Year 1200,' a Centennial exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. February 12-May 10, 1970." The Art Bulletin 53, no. 4 (December 1971). p. 512.

Schiller, Gertrud. Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst. Vol. 3. Gütersloh, Germany: Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn, 1971. pp. 25, 68, 72, 141, 273, fig. 23, ill. p. 318.

Beckwith, John. Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval England. London: Harvey Miller Publishers, 1972. no. 104, pp. 141–43, fig. 187–89.

Deuchler, Florens. "The Cloisters: Ein Museum für mittelalterliche Kunst in New York." Du 32, no. 2 (1972). p. 111.

Henderson, George. Early Medieval. Style and Civilization. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972. pp. 225–27, fig. 143.

Lasko, Peter. Ars Sacra, 800-1200. 1st ed. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1972. pp. 167–68, 171, fig. 177, 178.

Sass, Else Kai. "Pilate and the Title for Christ's Cross in Medieval Representations of Golgotha." In HAFNIA: Copenhagen Papers in the History of Art. Copenhagen: The University of Copenhagen, 1972. pp. 5, 7, fig. 7a, b.

Stone, Lawrence. Sculpture in Britain: The Middle Ages. Pelican History of Art. 2nd ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1972. pp. xxii, 84–85, 246 n. 16, pl. 61a.

Scarfe, Norman. "The Bury St. Edmunds Cross: The Work of Master Hugo?." Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology 33, no. 1 (1973). pp. 75–85, pls. VI–IX.

Fillitz, Hermann. "Review: Beckwith, Ivory Carving in Medieval Europe." Kunstchronik 27 (1974). pp. 430–31.

Lasko, Peter. "Medieval Ivory Carvings at the Victoria and Albert Museum." The Burlington Magazine 116, no. 856 (July 1974). p. 430, fig. 99.

Porter, Dean A. "Ivory Carving in Later Medieval England, 1200-1400." PhD diss., State University of New York, Binghamton, 1974. no. 14.

Beckwith, John, ed. Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval England, 700-1200. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1974. no. 61, pp. 92–96.

Blindheim, Martin. "Scandinavian Art and Its Relations to European Art around 1200." In The Year 1200: A Symposium. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975. pp. 434–35.

Christiansen, Tage E. "Ivories: Authenticity and Relationships." Acta Archaeologica 46 (1975). pp. 123–33, fig. 1, 3, 6–7.

Hoving, Thomas. "The Chase, the Capture." In The Chase, the Capture: Collecting at the Metropolitan, edited by Thomas Hoving. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1975. pp. 70–98, fig. 8–13.

Parker, Elizabeth C. "The Missing Base Plaque of the Bury St. Edmunds Cross." Gesta 14, no. 1 (1975). pp. 19–24, fig. 1–4.

Zarnecki, George. Art of the Medieval World: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, the Sacred Arts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975. p. 314, colorpl. 41.

Bateman, Katherine Roberta. "St. Albans: Its Ivory and Manuscript Workshops, a Solution to the St. Albans/Bury St. Edmunds dilemma." PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1976. pp. 175–76 n. 132, pl. 59.

Gaborit-Chopin, Danielle. Ivoires du Moyen Age. Fribourg: Office du Livre, 1978. no. 7, pp. 12–13, 103, 107, 178–79, 197, 204.

Gaborit-Chopin, Danielle. Elfenbeinkunst im Mittelalter. Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag, 1978. no. 4, pp. 178–79.

Parker, Elizabeth C. The Descent from the Cross: Its Relation to the Extra-Liturgical "Depositio" Drama. Outstanding dissertations in the fine arts. New York: Garland Publishing, 1978. pp. 95–96, 211–28, fig. 73–74, pl. XXXVII–XXXVIII.

Hibbard, Howard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Harper & Row, 1980. p. 144, fig. 264–66.

Kubach, Erich, and Peter Bloch. Früh- und Hochromanik. Kunst der Welt, Vol. 25. 2nd ed. Baden-Baden: Holle Verlag, 1980. p. 195.

Schiller, Gertrud. Ikonographie der christlichen Kunst. Vol. 4, pt. 2. Gütersloh, Germany: Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn, 1980. pp. 53–54, fig. 118, ill. p. 247.

Hoving, Thomas. King of the Confessors. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981. Discussed throughout.

Parker, Elizabeth C. "Master Hugo as Sculptor: A Source for the Style of the Bury Bible." Gesta 20, no. 1 (1981). pp. 102–4, fig. 4, 6–7.

Langberg, Harald. Gunhildkorset: Gunhild's Cross and Medieval Court Art in Denmark. Copenhagen. Selskabet til udgivelse af danske Mindesmaerker, 1982. pp. 19, 38 (Danish text), 62–63, 70 (English text), pl. 4–5.

Richardson, John. "The Mantel of Munchausen (Review of King of the Confessors)." The New York Review of Books (January 21, 1982). pp. 16–23.

Avril, François, Xavier Barral I Altet, and Danielle Gaborit-Chopin. Le Monde Roman, 1060-1220: Volume 2, Les Royaumes d'Occident. L'Univers des formes, Vol. 30. Paris: Gallimard, 1983. pp. 282–84, ill. p. 245, 246.

Howard, Kathleen, ed. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1983. no. 5, pp. 362–63.

Kahn, Deborah. "Recent Discoveries of Romanesque Sculpture at St. Albans." In Studies in Medieval Sculpture. Occasional Paper, n.s., Vol. 3. London: Society of Antiquaries of London, 1983. pp. 87, 89 n. 38, pl. XXXId.

Lasko, Peter. Two Ivory Kings in the British Museum and the Norman Conquest. Charlton Memorial Lectures, Vol. 57. Newcastle upon Tyne: University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1983. pp. 9–15, fig. 2, 3.

Barral I Altet, Xavier, François Avril, and Danielle Gaborit-Chopin. Romanische Kunst: Volume 2, Nord- und Westeuropa, 1060-1220. Universum der Kunst, Vol. 30. Munich: C.H. Beck, 1984. pp. 283–84, ill. p. 245, 246.

Bertelli, Carlo, ed. "Da Bury St. Edmunds alle croci italiane." In Il Re dei Confessori: dalla croce dei Cloisters alle croci italiane. Venice: Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, 1984. pp. 75–77, 81, 84–88.

Cahn, Walter. "Review: English Romanesque Art, 1066-1200." Art Journal 44, no. 3 (Fall 1984). pp. 275, 277–78.

Zarnecki, George, Janet Holt, and Tristram Holland, ed. English Romanesque Art, 1066-1200. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984. no. 206, pp. 211, 224–26.

Little, Charles T., and Elisabeth C. Parker. "Il Re dei Confessori." In Il Re dei Confessori: dalla croce dei Cloisters alle croci italiane. Venice: Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, 1984. pp. 3–69, fig. 1–21.

Nilgen, Ursula. "Review: English Romanesque Art 1066–1200." Kunstchronik 37 (1984). pp. 212–13.

Frazer, Margaret English. "Medieval Church Treasuries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 43, no. 3 (Winter 1985-1986). pp. 30–31, fig. 31.

McLachlan Elizabeth Parker, Malcolm Thurlby, and Charles T. Little. "Romanesque Reassembled in England: A Review." Gesta 24, no. 1 (1985). pp. 84–85.

Nilgen, Ursula. "Das große Walroßbeinkreuz in den 'Cloisters'." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 48, no. 1 (1985). pp. 39–64, fig. 1–2, 6–7, 9–11, 18–20, 23.

Little, Charles T. "Ivory Carving." In Dictionary of the Middle Ages, edited by Joseph R. Strayer. Vol. 7. New York: Scribner, 1986. p. 23.

McLachlan Elizabeth Parker. The Scriptorium of Bury St. Edmunds in the Twelfth Century. Outstanding Theses from the Courtauld Institute of Art. Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986. pp. 261–62.

Scarfe, Norman. Suffolk in the Middle Ages: Studies in Places and Place-names, the Sutton Hoo Ship-burial, Saints, Mummies and Crosses, Domesday Book and Chronicles of Bury Abbey. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1986. pp. 81–98, pls. 15, 17–22.

von Euw, Anton. "Elfenbein II, Okzident." In Lexikon des Mittelalters. Vol. 3. Stuttgart: J. B. Metzler, 1986. col. 1817.

Husband, Timothy B., and Charles T. Little. Europe in the Middle Ages. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1987. no. 48, pp. 56–57.

O'Reilly, Jennifer L. "The Rough-Hewn Cross in Anglo-Saxon Art." In Ireland and Insular Art, A.D. 500-1200, edited by Michael Ryan. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1987. pp. 154, 157.

Young, Bonnie. A Walk Through The Cloisters. 5th ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1988. pp. 112–13.

Erlande-Brandenburg, Alain. Gothic Art. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1989. pp. 485, 501, fig. 631.

Pinault, Gilberte. "Le tau 'du Mans': A propos d'une sculpture en ivoire en morse." Cahiers Archéologiques 37 (1989). p. 102.

Snyder, James. Medieval Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, 4th-14th century. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1989. p. 305, fig. 376, ill. p. 296.

Duby, Georges, Xavier Barral i Altet, and Sophie Guillot de Suduiraut. Sculpture: The Great Art of the Middle Ages from the Fifth to the Fifteenth Century. New York: Skira Rizzoli, 1990. pp. 96–97.

Morrison, Karl F. History as a Visual Art in the Twelfth-Century Renaissance. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990. pp. 38–47, 108, 121, 127, fig. 1–2.

Franco Mata, María Angela. "El Tesoro de San Isiodoro y la Monarquia Leonesa." Boletín del Museo Arqueológico Nacional 9 (1991). p. 60, ill. p. 53.

Jones, Bernice R. "A Reconsideration of the Cloisters Ivory Cross with the Caiaphas Plaque Restored to its Base." Gesta 30, no. 1 (1991). 65–88, fig. 1–5, 15–25.

Williamson, Paul. "Anglonormanna, Arte: Avori." In Enciclopedia dell'arte medievale. Vol. 1. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1991. pp. 732–33.

Kauffmann, C. M. Studies in Medieval Art. London: Pindar Press, 1992. p. 405.

Thurre, David. L'Atelier roman d'orfèvrerie de l'Abbaye de Saint-Maurice. Sierre: Editions Monographic, 1992. p. 62.

Zarnecki, George. Further Studies in Romanesque Sculpture. London: Pindar Press, 1992. pp. 327, 331, [reprint of Zarnecki 1967].

Burn, Barbara, ed. Masterpieces of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. pp. 66–67.

Henderson, George. Early Medieval. Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching, Vol. 29. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1993. pp. 224–27, fig. 143.

Mellinkoff, Ruth. Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages. Vol. 1. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. pp. 66, 68.

Mellinkoff, Ruth. Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages. Vol. 2. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. fig. III.22, III.34.

Heslop, T. A. "Review of The Cloisters Cross: Its Art and Meaning." The Burlington Magazine 136, no. 1096 (July 1994). pp. 459–60.

Howard, Kathleen, ed. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. 2nd ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. no. 5, p. 396.

Jacoby, Thomas. "Review: The Cloisters Cross and Its Meaning." Art Documentation: Journal of the Art Libraries Society of North America 13, no. 4 (Winter 1994). pp. 37–38.

Lasko, Peter. Studies on Metalwork, Ivories and Stone. London: Pindar Press, 1994. pp. 154–60, fig. 2, 3, [reprint of Lasko 1983].

Lasko, Peter. Ars Sacra, 800-1200. 2nd ed. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1994. pp. 147, 151–52, fig. 208, 209.

Parker, Elizabeth C., and Charles T. Little. The Cloisters Cross: Its Art and Meaning. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994. Discussed throughout.

Petzold, Andreas J. Romanesque Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995. p. 158, fig. 119.

Rorimer, Katherine Serrell. "Trésor de l'art roman anglais: La Croix du Cloister a New York." L'Estampille 211 (1998). pp. 46–54.

Akinsha, Konstantin. "The Master Swindler of Yugoslavia." ARTnews 100, no. 8 (September 2001). p. 156.

Hoving, Thomas. "Super Art Gems of New York City: The Cloisters Cross, Part II." Artnet Magazine (October 5, 2001).

Hoving, Thomas. "Super Art Gems of New York City: The Cloisters Cross, Part I." Artnet Magazine (September 27, 2001).

Strickland, Debra Higgs. Saracens, Demons, & Jews: Making Monsters in Medieval Art. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003. pp. 102–5, fig. 40.

Barnet, Peter, and Nancy Y. Wu. The Cloisters: Medieval Art and Architecture. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. no. 22, pp. 52, 194.

McLachlan Elizabeth Parker. "Liturgical Vessels and Implements." In The Liturgy of the Medieval Church, edited by Thomas J. Heffernan, and E. Ann Matter. Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages. Kalamazoo, Michigan: Western Michigan University, 2005. pp. 418–19, fig. 16.

Norris, Michael. Medieval Art: A Resource for Educators. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. no. 15, pp. 68–71.

Parker, Elizabeth C. "Editing the Cloisters Cross." Gesta 45, no. 2 (2006). pp. 147–60, fig. 1–7.

Surmann, Ulrike. Ein romanischer Elfenbeinkruzifixus: Kolumba. Berlin: Kulturstiftung der Länder, 2007. pp. 13, 20–21, fig. 21, 22.

Williamson, Paul. Medieval Ivory Carvings: Early Christian to Romanesque. London: V & A Publications, 2010. pp. 409–411.

Hahn, Cynthia. "Text and Image on the Cloisters Cross and other Ivories." Inscriptions in Liturgical Spaces, Acta ad archaeologiam et artium historiam pertinentia, 24 (2011). pp. 189–203, fig. 1–4.

Barnet, Peter, and Nancy Y. Wu. The Cloisters: Medieval Art and Architecture. 75th Anniversary ed. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. pp. 50–51.

Rowe, Nina. "Other." Studies in Iconography 33 (2012). 131–44, fig. 1–5.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012. p. 201.

Álvarez da Silva, Noemi. "El trabajo de marfil en la España del siglo XI." PhD diss., Universidad de León, 2014. pp. 118, 120, fig. 110.

Fozi, Shirin. "'The Time is Opportune': The Swarzenskis and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston." Journal of the History of Collections 27, no. 3 (November 2015). p. 436.

Stein, Wendy A. How to Read Medieval Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016. no. 12, pp. 11, 58–60.

Related Objects

Enthroned Virgin and Child

Date: ca. 1300 Medium: Elephant ivory Accession: 1979.402 On view in:Gallery 14

Aquamanile in the Form of a Ram

Date: ca. 1250–1350 Medium: Earthenware, green glaze Accession: 2007.142 On view in:Gallery 10

Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence

Date: ca. 1180 Medium: Pot-metal glass, vitreous paint Accession: 1984.232 On view in:Gallery 8

Roundel with Scenes of the Attack on the Castle of Love

Date: ca. 1320–40 Medium: Ivory Accession: 2003.131.1 On view in:Gallery 14

Diptych with the Coronation of the Virgin and the Last Judgment

Date: ca. 1260–70 Medium: Elephant ivory, with metal mounts Accession: 1970.324.7a, b On view in:Gallery 14