Art/ Collection/ Art Object

Female Figure

10th century B.C.
Mexico, Mesoamerica
H. 2 15/16 in. (7.5 cm)
Credit Line:
The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Bequest of Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1979
Accession Number:
Not on view
This solid, hand-modeled ceramic figurine is reddish tan to yellow in color and painted with an orange-red pigment. Featuring bulbous hips, a small waist, and diminutive arms, little regard is given to anatomical accuracy. A necklace conforms to the thick contours of the neck, and the central hair bun extends down the back of the head. Neither of the small perforations in the oversized ears continues to the backside.

Sculpted some three millennia ago in the Valley of Mexico, this figurine belongs to a group of ceramic effigies known collectively as the Tlatilco "pretty ladies." Depicting females with large heads, small waists, and prominent hips, these handheld sculptures present a fairly standardized body type and are typically fired to red, buff, or brown tones. As the popular embodiments of an ideal feminine form, the Tlatilco "pretty ladies" are part of a centuries-long tradition in which eccentricities and religious imagery predominate. Featuring hunchbacks, dwarfs, contorted acrobats, two-headed women, and conjoined twins, the corpus of Tlatilco figurines encompasses the full gamut of human representation.

For generations, Tlatilco was a small farming community located on the fringes of modern-day Mexico City. By the early twentieth century, however, the fields of clay surrounding Tlatilco had become important sites of brick production utilized in the construction and rapid expansion of the nearby Federal District. In 1936, brick workers began unearthing troves of ceramic figurines—later termed "pretty ladies"—that closely resembled others recently discovered by the archaeologist George C. Vaillant (1930). Using what little contextual information he had available to him, Vaillant accurately attributed these works to the Early to Middle Preclassic-period Zacatenco culture (ca. 1500–600 B.C.)--an umbrella term which also included the people of Tlatilco.

Beginning in the 1940s, archaeologists began to study the site of Tlatilco in earnest. Led by the renowned artist, ethnologist, and art historian Miguel Covarrubias, federally funded excavations helped to expose hundreds of ancient burials containing not only "pretty lady" figurines but also rich collections of polychrome pottery, carved jade, and stone tools. The enormous number of durable, finely made objects enabled Covarrubias to establish a more comprehensive typology of Tlatilco works than was previously possible. Through his comparisons of the local ceramic tradition with that of the contemporary Olmec culture, Covarrubias (1957) was able to document a large-scale incursion of Gulf Coast peoples into the area of Tlatilco sometime during the Late Preclassic period (ca. 600 B.C.). As a result, scholars now recognize the Tlatilco people as central players in the interregional, multi-ethnic cultural exchange that came to characterize Central Mexican Highland cultural interactions for the next several centuries.

To view Covarrubias’ original drawings of "pretty lady" figurines, which are preserved in the Department of the Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas, see 2014.244.15, 2014.244.18a–c, and 2014.244.19a, b.

William T. Gassaway, 2014–15 Sylvan C. Coleman and Pamela Coleman Fellow


Resources and Additional Reading

Covarrubias, Miguel. Indian Art of Mexico and Central America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1957.

Nicholson, Henry B. "Major Sculpture in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico." In Handbook of Middle American Indians, edited by Gordon F. Eckholm and Ignacio Bernal, Part I: 92–134. 10. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1971.

Taube, Karl. Olmec Art at Dumbarton Oaks. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2004.

Vaillant, George C. Excavations at Zacatenco. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 32, part 1. New York, 1930.
Esther Scheinman, Brooklyn, NY, until 1951; Nelson A. Rockefeller, New York, 1951, on loan to The Museum of Primitive Art, New York, 1961–1978

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Art of Oceania, Africa, and the Americas from the Museum of Primitive Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1969, no. 564.

Related Objects

Mother and Child Figure

Artist: Date: 12th–9th century B.C.
Accession Number: 1998.242
Date: 12th–9th century B.C. Medium: Ceramic Accession: 1998.242 On view in:Gallery 358

Small Yoke with Face

Artist: Date: 12th–9th century B.C.
Accession Number: 1979.206.1126
Date: 12th–9th century B.C. Medium: Stone Accession: 1979.206.1126 On view in:Gallery 358

Seated Figure

Artist: Date: 12th–9th century B.C.
Accession Number: 1979.206.1134
Date: 12th–9th century B.C. Medium: Ceramic, pigment Accession: 1979.206.1134 On view in:Gallery 358


Artist: Date: 900–400 B.C.
Accession Number: 1977.187.33
Date: 900–400 B.C. Medium: Jadeite Accession: 1977.187.33 On view in:Gallery 199

"Smiling" Figure

Artist: Date: 7th–8th century
Accession Number: 1979.206.1211
Date: 7th–8th century Medium: Ceramic Accession: 1979.206.1211 On view in:Gallery 358