The ancient land of Thrace encompassed a large area now divided into Bulgaria, southern Romania, eastern Yugoslavia, northeastern Greece, and European Turkey. The first inhabitants of Thrace came from the northern part of Europe and appeared at least as early as the second millennium B.C. Thracian tribes of the mid-first millennium B.C. adopted some of the decorative traditions and nomadic habits of their Scythian neighbors to the east, but they had closer cultural relations with European prehistoric peoples and preserved many of the traditions of the European Bronze Age. From the mid-first millennium, such objects as ceremonial helmets, armor, cups, and ornamental gear for horses—worked from silver and sometimes gilded—have been discovered in graves and in finds that must have been the buried hoards of Thracian princes and chiefs.
This silver beaker is a fine example of fourth century B.C. Thracian workmanship. It probably was made in the region of present-day Romania or Bulgaria, as similar beakers have been found in a princely tomb at Agighiol, near the delta of the Danube in eastern Romania. The beaker is raised from a single piece of silver with a stamped, chased, and repoussé design. The decoration depicts a horned bird of prey holding a fish in its beak and clutching what seems to be a hare in its claws. The bird is flanked by one horned and two antlered animals, and, facing the large bird, a tiny bird of prey hovers over the horned animal. Almost opposite the large bird is a staglike creature with eight legs indicating two stags. His antlers extend into a border of tines ending in bird heads that circle the upper portion of the cup. Around both the rim and the base of the beaker runs a pattern of overlapping semicircles; below, the pattern is fringed with scrolling that suggests waves. On the bottom of the cup a winged, griffinlike monster chews an animal leg and grasps a small beast in its clawed feet.
Although certain contemporary Scythian and Iranian stylistic influences can be seen, the iconography of these scenes is clearly Thracian and probably refers to a native myth or legend. The monstrous bird of prey with land and water creatures in its grasp appears to symbolize dominance over land and water. Though a precise interpretation of the iconography remains uncertain, scholars have suggested that these animals were symbols associated with a heroic ruler and served as protective spirits, avatars, and tribal totems.
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Title:Beaker with birds and animals
Date:ca. 4th century BCE
Dimensions:7 3/8 in. × 6 in. × 6 in. (18.8 × 15.2 × 15.2 cm)
Credit Line:Rogers Fund, 1947
1913-1914, said to be found in the Danube region (Rostovtzeff 1931, p. 534); bought by Baron Eugene Kohner (Kohner Jenő) from a Budapest antiquarian; 1935, bought by Joseph Brummer from Dr. Simon Meller, Budapest and Vienna (Brummer inv. no. P12004); acquired by the Museum in 1947, purchased from the estate of Joseph Brummer, New York.
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“The Dark Ages: A Loan Exhibition of Pagan and Christian Art in the Latin West and Byzantine East,” Worcester Art Museum, Worcester, Massachusetts, February 20–March 21, 1937.
“’Animal Style’ Art from East to West,” Asia House Gallery, New York, The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, de Young Museum, San Francisco, 1970.
“Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries,” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, November 14, 1970–June 1, 1971.
“The Grand Gallery,” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, October 19, 1974–January 5, 1975.
“Ancient Gold: the Wealth of the Thracians (Treasures from the Republic of Bulgaria),” Saint Louis Art Museum, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco, New Orleans Museum of Art, Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, The Detroit Institute of Arts, 1998–1999.
“The Golden Deer of Eurasia,” The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Palazzo Reale, Milan, 2000–2001.
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Archibald, Zofia H. 1998. The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace: Orpheus unmasked. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 265.
Aruz, Joan, Ann Farkas, Andrei Alekseev, and Elena Korolkova, eds. 2000. The Golden Deer of Eurasia: Scythian and Sarmatian Treasures from the Russian Steppes, exh. cat. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 270-271, fig. 91.
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