Poem of Farewell to Liu Man, Yelü Chucai (Khitan, 1190–1244), Handscroll; ink on paper, China

元 耶律楚材 行書贈別劉滿詩 卷
Poem of Farewell to Liu Man

Yelü Chucai (Khitan, 1190–1244)
Yuan dynasty (1271–1368)
dated 1240
Handscroll; ink on paper
Image: 14 1/2 x 111 3/4 in. (36.8 x 283.8 cm)
Overall with mounting: 15 in. x 37 ft. 7 11/16 in. (38.1 x 1147.3 cm)
Credit Line:
Bequest of John M. Crawford Jr., 1988
Accession Number:
Not on view
Yelü Chucai played a pivotal role in mitigating the harsh rule of the Mongols over the occupied territories of North China. A trusted adviser to both Chinggis Khan and his son Ögödei, he introduced fiscal reforms and an amnesty for tax debts. Unfortunately, many of his administrative reforms were short-lived.

The blunt, monumental writing on this handscroll, with its emphatic hooks and dots and square character forms, recalls the unrestrained style of Huang Tingjian (1045–1105), a Northern Song master who advocated "driving every brushstroke with full force." The poem lauds the virtuous administration of a young official in an era of widespread exploitation and reflects Yelü's own attempts to institute more humanitarian policies:

Half the population of Yun[zhong] and Xuan[de] have fled
their homes;
Only the few thousand people under your care are secure.
You are among our dynasty's most able administrators.
Your good name is as lofty as Mount Tai.

On the sixteenth day of the tenth lunar month in the winter of the gengzi year, Liu Man of Yangmen requested that I write a poem on the eve of his departure. I wrote this for him in admiration of his administrative ability. Abusive officials and wily functionaries should feel ashamed! Yuquan [Yelü Chucai]
#7358. Poem of Farewell to Liu Man
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Inscription: Artist's inscription and signature (21 columns in standard script)

Half the population of Yun [zhong] and Xuan [de] has fled their homes;[1]
Only the few thousand people under your care are secure.
You are among our dynasty’s most able administrators;
Your good name is as lofty as Mount Tai.[2]

On the sixteenth of the tenth lunar month in the winter of the gengzi year [November 1, 1240] Liu Man of Yangmen requested a poem on the eve of his departure and I wrote this for him in admiration of his administrative ability. Wouldn’t abusive officials and wily functionaries feel ashamed! Yuquan [Yelü Chucai]


Other inscription

Unidentified artist, 1 column in standard script, undated:

Ink autograph of Prince Wenzheng, Yelü Chucai.


Label strips

1. Baoxi 寳熙 (1871–after 1940), 3 columns in standard script, dated 1935; 1 seal (mounted on brocade wrapper):

Ink autograph of Prince Yelü Wenzheng [Yelü Chucai] of the Yuan dynasty.
Baoxi inscribed this label in the summer, the fifth lunar month, of the yihai year [1935]. [Seal]: Baoxi

乙亥夏五寳熙題簽。 [印]: 寳熙

2. Shizhi Shanfang 石芝山房 (unidentified), 2 columns in standard script, undated (mounted in front of the poem):

Ink autograph of Prince Yelü Wenzheng [Yelü Chucai] with four colophons by people of the Yuan dynasty.
[The master of the] Shizhi Mountain Retreat inscribed this label.



1. Song Lian 宋濂 (1310–1381), 12 columns in standard script, undated[4]; 3 seals:

To the right is a farewell poem to Liu of Yangmen [Liu Man], a work by Secretariat Prince Yelü Wenzheng [Yelü Chucai]. The Prince was born in the gengxu year of the Mingchang reign era of the Jin period [1190]. Twenty-six years later he became a subject of our dynasty in the yihai year of the Zhenyou reign era [1215]. In his inscription after the poem he said it was the winter of the gengzi year [1240]. Tracing back from gengzi to yihai, there were additional twenty-five years. Therefore the Prince created this work at the age of fifty-one. At that time, the Jin subjects had come under the new rulers just recently, and most of the laws and systems had not been established. The newly acquired counties and prefectures were often divided into nobles’ and aristocrats’ vassalages. Since no pacification policy was implemented, most people ran away, to which [the poetic line about] people fled their homes seems to refer. How deeply the Prince cared about his subjects! The Prince was a profound, serious man, who did not commend people casually. Since he singled out Yangmen as an able administrator worthy of praise, we could tell how well Yangmen governed. The Prince was named Chucai, zi Jinqing, an eighth-generation grandson of Yelü Tuyu (active early 10th c.), Prince Dongdan of the Liao dynasty. For twenty years he was the prime minister, to whom all military and national affairs were entrusted. He lived close to Mount Yuquan, which he adopted as his style name. Song Lian, a junior scholar from Jinhua [in Zhejiang] inscribed this respectfully. [Seals]: Jinhua, Song shi Jinglian, Qianxi Song Lian

右送劉陽門詩一章,中書耶律文正王之所作也。王生於金明昌庚戌,生二十六年歸我國朝,實貞祐乙亥。今詩後題云:“庚子之冬。”以庚子上溯乙亥又二十五年,則王五十一歲作此也。當是時,金民新附,法制多未定,所得州縣或割裂為諸王貴族湯沐邑。撫綏之道不至,民多亡去,所謂黎庶逋逃,似指此也。王之不忘吾民者,何其至哉。王沈毅慎許可,而獨以能吏稱陽門,則陽門之為政可知矣。王名楚材,字晉卿,耶律氏,遼東丹王突欲之八世孫,為相二十年,軍國之務悉委焉。所居近玉泉山,因以自號云。金華後學宋濂謹題。 [印]: 金華、宋氏景濂、潛谿宋濂。

2. Li Shizhuo 李世倬 (1673–1744), 7 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1743; 2 seals:

It is said in the Catalogue of Paoweng’s Family Collection [by Wu Kuan, 1435–1504] that the calligraphy of Academician Song [Song Lian] was pure with an ancient flair and well disciplined. Lang Renbao [Lang Ying, 1487–1566] said Song’s cursive calligraphy evoked the images of circling dragons and dancing phoenixes. Li Rihua (1565–1635) said in his Miscellaneous Notes from the Liuyan Studio that masters of the Tang and the Song dynasties all specialized in semi-cursive and cursive calligraphy. During his own dynasty Song Jinglian [Song Lian] was the only calligrapher good at the small standard script. He Qiaoyuan (1558–1631) said in his Things to Be Kept in Famous Mountains [Mingshan cang] that Song never stopped practicing calligraphy from youth to old age, writing in a lush manner. Upon a closer look, one can see several characters written on a single grain. The above remarks are gathered from calligraphers’ biographies. His life in service and retreat has been clearly stated in the History of the Ming Dynasty. There is no need to repeat. On the twentieth of the fifth lunar month in the eighth year of the Qianlong reign era [July 11, 1743] Li Shizhuo inscribed this. [Seals]: Shizhuo, Yinxian shi

《匏翁家藏集》 稱“宋太史書清古有法。”郎仁寶云:“公草書有龍盤鳳舞之象。”李日華 《六研齋筆記》 云:“唐、宋名公俱以行草擅場,昭代精細楷者宋景濂一人而已。”何喬遠 《名山筆記》 謂:“公自少至老未嘗去書豐體,近視乃一黍上能作數字。”以上皆書家傳所集,其出處已詳標《明史》可無更述矣。乾隆八年五月廿日李世倬識。 [印]: 世卓、因弦氏

3. Dai Liang 戴良 (1317–1383), 26 columns in standard script, dated 1349; 4 seals:

Having read such poems as “Grandly Lofty” [Song gao] and “The Multitudes of the People” [Zhengmin], I realized that in ancient times people in charge of national affairs sometimes resorted to poetry to exhort the world.[5] In view of Shen Bo’s (active 9th–8th c. B.C.) administration and Zhong Shanfu’s [Fan Muzhong, active 9th–8th c. B.C.] journey to Qi, Administrator Jifu [Xi Jia, active 9th–8th c. B.C.], a senior minister of the [Western] Zhou dynasty (ca. 1100-771 B.C.), composed these two poems for them. His praise of them was the highest, whereas his remarks not directly referred to them were meant to exhort the world. Consequently at the time everyone admonished himself to be good. As a result, worthies and talents arrived in quantities and the capable continued to be employed. King Xuan’s (r. 827–782 B.C.) virtue lay in securing the prosperity of a dynastic revival. As to his original inspiration, wouldn’t it be the exhortation to be good expressed in those two poems? Then Master Yelü’s farewell poem to Marquis Liu must have been inspired by this. When Master Yelü served as Secretariat, a Marquis Liu was leaving to take a post in charge of Yangmen and asked him for a poem. He therefore composed one of four lines for him as a gift and inscribed at the end, “What I admire about the Marquis is his administrative ability.” His admiration of someone’s administrative ability could make an exhortation to the world. Later on Marquis Liu, as a military commander-in-chief, led his army to vanquish the Jin dynasty and sacked [its capital] Bian [present-day Kaifeng, Henan], and became a celebrated minister of the time. In addition, between the Zhongtong (1260–1263) and the Zhiyuan (1264–1294) reigns groups of men of great talent and distinguished virtue appeared over and again. What can we say about poetry as exhortation to the world?

One day Marquis Liu’s great-grandson Zhizuo [Liu Shiji, active mid-14th c.] came to my hometown as Assistant Magistrate and, having shown me this poem by the Master, asked me to inscribe it below. That was how I realized that the Master had a profound understanding of the ancient’s intent. When the Master served as Secretariat, the north and the south were divided and the nation had not been unified. The logistics of dispatching the armies and transporting military provisions left him no spare moment any day. But just because Marquis Liu was an able administrator, he managed to put aside his official duties to compose a poem to establish his reputation, through which he eagerly spread his exhortation to the world. His intent, therefore, could measure up to Administrator Jifu’s, and his poem would go down history together with “Grandly Lofty,” “The Multitudes of the People,” and the likes. If this poem could indeed be passed on, Marquis Liu’s name will also be perpetuated like those of Shen Bo and Zhong Shanfu. Seeing this, how could people of later times not exhort good deeds even harder? The Master’s name is Chucai, zi Jinqing, last name Yelü. A descendant of the Khitan imperial family, he came to serve the great Yuan. His distinguished accomplishments, as well as his literary refinement and powerful calligraphy, have been permanently recorded in dynastic histories, so I will not enumerate them here. In the ninth year of the Zhizheng reign era, on the fifteenth of the intercalary [seventh] lunar month in the jichou year [August 29, 1349], Dai Liang from Pujiang [in Zhejiang] respectfully inscribed this. [Seals]: Xunzhi Zhai, Dongyang, Dai Liang zhi yin, Shuneng

予讀崧高烝民諸詩,然後知古之秉國鈞者,未嘗不假詩以為世勸也。蓋尹吉甫之佐周也,以申伯之治,謝仲山甫之徂齊,為作此二詩以送之。其所以褒美之者至矣;非直褒美之也,蓋將以為世勸焉爾。故當是時,人皆以善自厲,卒致賢才輩出,用能不墜。宣王之美,以保有中興之盛跡,其故岂不由二詩有以勸其為善之心哉。然則耶律公之送劉侯也,庶幾有得於此乎?耶律公居中書時,有劉侯者,方出治陽門,因其索詩,為作一章,章四句以遺之,且題其末曰:“予之褒美於侯者,所以賞其能治也。賞其能治也者,乃所以為世勸也。”其後劉侯既以上將帥師,蹶金破汴,為時名臣。而中統至元之間,長材懋德,亦層見而疊出。詩之所以為世勸者又何如哉?一日,劉侯之曾孫之佐來貳吾邑,因出公是詩以相示,請志下方,予於是知公深得古人之遺意矣。蓋公之在中書也,當夫南北分裂之際,區宇未混一之時,戈甲之營調,芻餉之轉輸,顧方日不暇給,而公乃力排所務,獨以劉侯能治之故,形諸賦詠,樹之風聲汲汲焉,欲藉是以為世勸之資。則公之是心也,雖質之尹吉甫可也;其所為詩,又安得不與崧高烝民諸篇並傳於世哉。誠使是詩之有傳,則劉侯之名亦將與申伯、仲山甫同垂不朽矣。後之觀者,可不益勸於為善乎?公名楚材,字晉卿,耶律其氏也。以契丹世胄,入仕皇元。其高勳盛烈,與夫辭章之美麗、字畫之遒劲,固已銘之太常,書之太史,茲不著。至正九年其歲己丑閏月望日浦江戴良謹題。 [印]: 遜志齋、東陽、戴良之印、叔能

4. Li Shizhuo 李世倬 (1673–1744), 3 columns in small standard script, undated:

[Dai] Liang, zi Shuneng, whose biography is included in the section of men of letters in the History of the Ming Dynasty [Ming shi, wenyuan zhuan], was erudite in the classics, history, and various philosophical schools, in addition to medicine, divination, Buddhism, and Daoism. Upon someone’s recommendation, Emperor Shundi (r. 1333–1367) of the Yuan dynasty conferred on him the position of Supervisor of Confucian Schools in the Provinces of Jiangnan Region. When Emperor Taizu of the Ming (r. 1368–1398) took over Jinhua [in Zhejiang], he became his subject. Shizhuo


5. Zheng Tao 鄭濤 (1315–ca. 1380), 7 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1352:

Every word in the writings of the ancients is intended to instruct the world; none is uttered casually. The farewell poem for Liu of Yangmen, had it been composed by someone other than Master Yelü, would have been nothing but sad expressions over parting. Only the Master admired Liu’s administrative ability. Furthermore, his statement that abusive officials and greedy functionaries feel dread is as compelling as the autumnal frost and the scorching sun, which inspires fear and awe. Even those who want to see it may not have a chance, let alone to handle it in person. The mere refinement of his calligraphy is not enough to measure his achievement. In spring, the first lunar month of the renchen year in the Zhizheng reign era [January 18–February 15, 1352] Zheng Tao from Yimen [in Jiangxi] inscribed this with respect.


6. Gong Su 龔璛 (1266–1331), 9 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1321; 2 seals:

This poem by Secretariat Yelü was not composed just for Marquis Liu of Yangmen in recognition of his preserving territorial integrity and people’s lives under his charge. At the time the nation was in chaos, and he hoped that everyone would become someone like Yuan Jie (719–772).[6] Therefore viewing it now, one can imagine how people of those days were never unconcerned with benevolent intention and administration when they composed poetry and practiced calligraphy. On the twentieth of the first lunar month in the first year of the Zhezhi reign era [February 17, 1321] Gong Su from Gaoyou [in Jiangsu] respectfully viewed this. [Seals]: Guyang Shufang, Gong shi Zijing

中書耶律公此詩非特為陽門劉侯保境全民而作也。蓋時方混一,欲天下皆元結輩耳。故至今觀之,使人想見當時人物無往而非仁心仁政,而吟詩寫字云乎哉。至治元年正月廿日高郵龔璛拜觀。 [印]:谷陽書房、龔氏子敬

7. Li Shizhuo 李世倬 (1673–1744), 6 columns in semi-cursive script and 2 columns in small standard script, dated 1743; 1 seal:

Yelü Wenzheng’s [Yelü Chucai’s] life in service and retreat has been recorded in history. His extant autographs are only this one or two, unlike Songxue [Zhao Mengfu, 1254–1322] and the likes whose names are perpetuated through brush and ink. The poetic colophons attached to the end of the scroll were all written by famous people of their times one after another. There used to be Liu Jing’an’s seals. Unfortunately they were cut off with only four left. Jing’an must be Marquis Liu’s great-grandson, which the remarks in the colophons indicate. One must not treasure this merely as a painting or a calligraphic piece. It elevates people’s morale and straightens the way of the world, which is a momentous contribution. Ziya, Shizhuo [Seal]: Shizhuo zhi yin

Gong Su, zi Zijing, was a poet of the Yuan period recorded in the History of the Yuan Dynasty. The Educational Official Lin Qingjiang [Lin Lingxu, 1678–1743] has gathered information about his life and written it down. On the twentieth of the fifth lunar month in the eighth year of the Qianlong reign era [July 11, 1743].

耶律文正出處已標青史,手蹟之在人間者,只此一二,非若松雪輩第以筆墨傳耳。卷尾詩跋皆一時名流逐數。有劉氏靜安鈐印,奈為人割去,僅存四首。靜安者知必劉侯之曾孫,以跋內語可騐也。寶此,不可以作書畫觀,其勵人心,正世道,功莫大焉。子雅氏世倬 [印]:世卓之印


8 .Yuan Lizhun 袁勵準 (1875–1936), 16 columns in standard script, dated 1934; 2 seals:

The greatness of Prince Yelü Wenzheng’s [Yelü Chucai’s] career as prime minister was only second to that of Zhuge Wuhou [Zhuge Liang, 181–234]. His calligraphy is profound and vigorous with the awesome spirit of Mount Tai. Never in any connoisseur’s catalogue [of artworks] has Wenzheng ever been mentioned. This is indeed the only specimen of his in our nation’s calligraphic masterworks. Having lasted for seven hundred years, it appears as compelling as a living creature. In terms of the loftiness of his calligraphy, it is as if he were writing in the styles of Yan Lugong [Yan Zhenqing, 709–785], Su Wenzhong [Su Shi, 1037–1101], and Huang Wenjie [Huang Tingjian, 1045–1105] simultaneously. I once saw Luo Liangfeng’s [Luo Pin’s, 1733–1799] copy of a portrait of the Prince by a Yuan painter. The figure, in a tall hat and an ornate official robe with his beard almost three feet long, has the bearing of a founding member of a dynasty. It had over a dozen colophons written by famous people of the Qianlong (1736–1795) and Jiaqing (1796–1820) reign eras. This scroll only has a quatrain, but his encouragement to Liu of Yangmen is serious and thoughtful. His final statement, “Wouldn’t abusive officials and wily functionaries feel ashamed,” really shows how deeply he cared about the people. This poem is not recorded in [Yelü’s] Anthology of the Limpid-minded Man, so it is particularly precious. When my deceased friend Master Wang Zhongque, Guowei (1877–1927), was compiling the Prince’s chronology, he used this scroll as a source material. Otherwise it has never been mentioned anywhere. I once went outside the gate of the Yihe Yuan palace compound to pay homage to the Prince’s portrait and his tomb. Lost in thought every now and then, I couldn’t bear to leave. In the early autumn of the jiaxu year [1934] Yuan Lizhun respectfully inscribed this. [Seals]: Yuan Lizhun yin, bawei shu

耶律文正王相業之盛,為諸葛武侯後第一。書法閎深健竺,有泰山巖巖氣象。無論何家著錄,從未見文正一字,誠我國名書中孤本也。垂七百年,凜凜如生。至書格之高,直合顏鲁公、蘇文忠、黃文節為一手。余嘗見羅兩峰摹元人畫王小象,峩冠衮服,鬚長幾及三尺,具有開國規模。有乾、嘉名人題跋十餘段。此卷祇七絕一首,而勉劉陽門之意,語重心長。末作“暴官猾吏,豈不愧哉”二語,尤見王愛民之深也。此詩為《湛然居士集》所不載,尤為可貴。亡友王忠慤公國維作王年譜,曾假此卷為記載之資,他處則未能得一字也。余嘗至頤和園宫門外,拜王遺象,謁王遺冢,輒彽徊而不能去也。甲戌新秋袁勵準敬題。 [印]: 袁勵準印、跋尾書

9. Deng Bangshu 鄧邦述 (1868–1939), 12 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1936; 3 seals:

Prince Yelü Wenzheng [Yelü Chucai] topped all other accomplished ministers of the Yuan dynasty. His Anthology of the Limpid-minded Man, included in the Siku [Siku quanshu, Encyclopedic collection of four literary categories, completed in 1781], is also the top choice of Yuan literature. Although the poem in this scroll is not recorded in his anthology, his sincerity in supervising officials and taking care of the people is revealed between the lines. Even viewed six hundred years later, it inspires awe and respect. That’s how deeply moving it is. The Yuan rule over China did not last a hundred years. Inheriting the declining Jin dynasty (1115–1234), it managed to unify the whole realm. I sometimes think, wasn’t it owing to the distinguished services of its sagacious administrators that it was able to establish national stability and receive people’s support? Modern scholars tend to insist on ethnic discrimination, but the mentality that “He who cares about me is my ruler and he who abuses me is my enemy” will not change through eternity. Didn’t Huang Chao (died 884) and Li Zicheng (1606-1645) appear a Han ethnic in every respect? But weren’t the catastrophes caused by them even more gruesome than the one caused by the Yuan barbarians? His remark “Wouldn’t abusive officials and wily functionaries feel ashamed” is obviously the words of a compassionate man. Song Jinglian’s [Song Lian’s] colophon was written prior to the Ming period. Dai Shuliang [Dai Liang] and Gong Zijing [Gong Su] were renowned scholars of the Yuan dynasty, whose anthologies are both in my family’s collection. Only the name of Zheng of Yimen [Zheng Tao] was somewhat obscure. Mr. [Zhou] Xiangyun (1878–1943) acquired this treasure and gave me a treat for my eyes. I therefore wrote this seriously. Deng Bangshu in the seventh lunar month of the bingzi year [1936]. [Seals]: Deng Bangshu yin, Zheng’an Xueren, Feidun Xuan

耶律文正王為有元勳佐之首,《湛然居士集》 四庫著錄,亦為元人首選。此卷此詩雖未收入集中,然其察吏愛民之切流露楮墨間。六百年後見之,猶生人景仰之意,知其感人者深矣。嘗思元主中夏,不及百年,承金之敝,遂能混一區宇,豈不以世有賢輔任功使能,方得奠國家之安,受民人之附。近世學者頗持種族之見,夫輔[此自點去]撫我則后,虐我則仇,此亙古不易之心理。彼黃巢、李闖豈不儼然漢族?而其流毒之慘,不更甚於胡元哉?“暴官猾吏,豈不媿哉”二語,仁人之言昭然若揭已。宋景濂一跋,未入明時所書。戴叔良、龔子敬則元代名宿,余家皆藏其文集。獨鄭義門其名稍晦耳。湘雲先生得此瓌寶,飽我眼福,因鄭重書之。丙子七月鄧邦述 [印]: 鄧邦述印、正闇學人、飛遯軒

Collectors' seals

Liu Jing’an 劉靜安 (14th c.)
Liu shi Jing’an (5 times) 劉氏靜安

Feng Gongdu 馮公度 (1867–1948)
Gongdu shending mingji 公度審定名蹟
Feng Gongdu jia zhencang 馮公度家珍藏

Baoxi 寶熙 (1871–after 1940)
Baoxi changshou 寶熙長壽
Chen An pingsheng zhenshang 沈盦平生真賞

Yuan Lizhun 袁勵準 (1875–1936)
Konggaohan Zhai zhenmi 恐高寒齋珍秘

Jin Cheng 金城 (1878–1926)
Wuxing Jin Cheng jianding Song Yuan zhenji zhi yin 吳興金城鑑定宋元真蹟之印

Zhou Xiangyun 周湘雲 (1878–1943)
Xiangyun miwan 湘雲秘玩
Gujin Zhou shi Baomi Shi miji yin 古堇周氏寳米室秘笈印
Xiangyun xinshang 湘雲心賞
Xue An mingxin zhi pin 雪盦銘心之品
Cengjing Xue An shoucang 曾經雪盦收藏

Gu Luofu 顧洛阜 (John M. Crawford, Jr., 1913–1988)
Hanguang Ge 漢光閣
Gu Luofu 顧洛阜
Hanguang Ge Zhu Gu Luofu jiangcang Zhongguo gudai shuhua zhi zhang 漢光閣主顧洛阜鋻藏中國古代書畫之章

Xiao Zhai (3 times) 小齋
Jingyuan Tang tushu 敬原堂圖書

[1] Yunzhong is the Tang name for present-day Datong, Shanxi Province. Xuande is the Liao dynasty name for a district just west of Datong.
[2] Translation after Wen C. Fong, Beyond Representation: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy 8th–14th Century. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992, p. 416.
[3] Translations from Department records. The colophons were reordered in a subsequent remounting. For a fuller discussion of these colophons, see Laurence Sickman et al., Chinese Calligraphy and Painting in the Collection of John M. Crawford, Jr., exhibition catalogue. The Pierpont Morgan Library, Sickman 1962, pp. 93-94; Kwan S. Wong and Stephen Addiss. Masterpieces of Song and Yuan Dynasty Calligraphy from the John C. Crawford Jr. Collection. Exhibition catalogue. New York: China Institute in America, 1981, pp. 58-59; and Yang Renkai, “Masterpieces by Three Calligraphers: Huang T'ing-chien, Yeh-lü Ch'u-ts'ai and Chao Meng-fu.” In Words and Images: Chinese Poetry, Calligraphy, and Painting. Alfreda Murck and Wen C. Fong, eds. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991, pp. 34-35.
[4] Song Lian’s colophon is not dated. Kwan S. Wong suggests that it may be written when Liu Man was in Pujiang [Jinhua] between 1349 and 1351. See Kwan S. Wong, Masterpieces of Sung and Yuan Dynasty Calligraphy from the John M. Crawford Jr. Collection (New York: China Institute in America, Inc. 1981), p. 59.
[5] The two poems are from The Book of Poetry (Shi jing). The translations of the titles here follow those in James Legge, The Chinese Classics, vol. IV, The She King (Taipei: SMC Publishing Inc., 1991), pp. 535, 541.
[6] Yuan Jie was an exemplary official and great poet of the Tang dynasty. He once wrote a poem entitled “To Officials upon the Bandits’ Retreat, with Preface” (Zei tui shi guanli bing xu), in which he admonishes officials not to tax people heavily.
John M. Crawford Jr. , New York (by 1971–d. 1988; bequeathed to MMA)
London. Victoria and Albert Museum. "Chinese Painting and Calligraphy from the Collection of John M. Crawford, Jr.," June 17, 1965–August 1, 1965.

New York. China House Gallery. "Masterpieces of Song and Yuan Dynasty Calligraphy from the John M. Crawford Jr. Collection," October 21, 1981–January 31, 1982.

Lawrence. Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas. "Masterpieces of Song and Yuan Dynasty Calligraphy from the John M. Crawford Jr. Collection," March 14, 1982–May 2, 1982.

Osaka Municipal Museum of Art. "The Embodied Image: Chinese Calligraphy from the John B. Elliott Collection," April 8, 2003–June 1, 2005.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Secular and Sacred: Scholars, Deities, and Immortals in Chinese Art," September 10, 2005–January 8, 2006.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The World of Khubilai Khan: Chinese Art in the Yuan Dynasty," September 28, 2010–January 2, 2011.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Chinese Painting from the Metropolitan Collection I," October 31, 2015–October 11, 2016.