The Crucifixion and the six half-length angels mounted within the frame are fragments of an altarpiece; however their current arrangement does not reflect that of the original altarpiece but rather a reconfiguration by a 19th-century collector. The Crucifixion originally formed the altarpiece's central pinnacle while the Six Angels originally comprised pilasters. The altarpiece was probably painted for Santa Maria degli Angeli, the Camaldolese church of Florence, perhaps for the chapel founded in 1365 and dedicated to Ognissanti (All Saints), which was funded by Ser Francesco di Ser Berto degli Albizzi. The altarpiece and its components have been variously attributed to members of the renowned family of Florentine painters: the brothers Andrea (known as Orcagna), Nardo, and Jacopo di Cione. The commission may have been given to Nardo in 1365 and taken over by Jacopo, following Nardo's death in 1366. The Cione brothers, especially Nardo, were involved in multiple commissions for Santa Maria degli Angeli.
William Young Ottley, London, until 1836; Warner Ottley, London; Warner Ottley sale, Foster and Son, London, June 30, 1847, lot 20 (bought Grunnet; for this see E. K. Waterhouse, "Some Notes on William Young Ottley's Collection of Italian Primitives," in Italian Studies Presented to E. R. Vincent, 1962, p. 276); Sir Charles Eastlake by 1853 (see D. A. Robertson, Sir Charles Eastlake and the Victorian Art World, 1978, pp. 279-80); Lady Eastlake, London, Lady Eastlake sale, Christie's, London, June 2, 1894, lot 54; Harry Quilter, London; Quilter sale, Christie's, London, April 7, 1906, lot 75; Carfax Gallery, London; sold to Roger Fry, London, May 12, 1906, Léonce Rosenberg, Paris. Acquired by Philip Lehman prior to 1913.
Gustav Friedrich Waagen. Works of Art and Artists in England. Vol. 2, London, 1838, p. 124.
Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. A New History of Painting in Italy, from the Second to the Sixteenth Century. Vol. 1, London, 1864, pp. 453-454.
Osvald Sirén. Giottino und seine Stellung in der gleichzeitigen florentinischen Malerei. Leipzig, 1908, pp. 26, 29, 33, 91, 107, pl. 11.
Osvald Sirén. "Pictures in America of Bernardo Daddi, Taddeo Gaddi, Andrea Orcagna and his Brothers: II." Art in America, 2 (1913–1914), pp. 335-336, fig. 7.
Osvald Sirén. Giotto and Some of his Followers. Vol. 2, Cambridge, MA, 1917, pp. 259-260, pl. 218.
Raimond van Marle. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. Vol. 3, The Hague, 1924, p. 506.
Robert Lehman. The Philip Lehman Collection, New York: Paintings. Paris, 1928, Pl. 6
Lionello Venturi. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931, Pl. 47.
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 275.
Martin Davies. The Earlier Italian Schools. London, 1951, p. 309.
Paintings and Bronzes from the Collection of Mr. Robert Lehman. Exh. cat., Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center. Colorado Springs, 1951, Pl. 13
Theodore Allen Heinrich. "The Lehman Collection." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 12 (April 1954), p. 218.
Charles Sterling, ed. Exposition de la collection Lehman de New York. Exh. cat., Musée de l'Orangerie. Paris, 1957, p. 43, no. 43.
Mirella Levi d'Ancona. "Don Silvestro de’ Gherarducci e il Maestro delle Canzoni." Rivista d'arte, 32 (1957), pp. 3-37.
The Lehman Collection. Exh. cat., Cincinnati, 1959, p. 16, no. 60.
Carmen Gómez-Moreno. Medieval Art from Private Collections: A Special Exhibition at The Cloisters, October 30, 1968 through January 5, 1969. Exh. cat., New York, 1968, no. 12.
Miklós Boskovits. "Su Don Silvestro, Don Simone e la 'Scuola degli Angeli'." Paragone, 23 (1972), pp. 35-61.
Miklòs Boskovits. Pittura fiorentina alla vigilia del Rinascimento, 1370–1400. Florence, 1975, pp. 68-69, 328, 424, fig. 270.
George Szabó. The Robert Lehman Collection: A Guide. New York, 1975, Pl. 28
Richard Offner. The Fourteenth Century: A Legacy of Attributions. New York, 1981, pp. 7-8.
John Pope-Hennessy assisted by Laurence B. Kanter inThe Robert Lehman Collection. Vol. 1, Italian Paintings. New York, 1987, pp. 68-70, no. 32.
Laurence B. Kanter inPainting and Illumination in Early Renaissance Florence: 1300–1450. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994.
Katharine Baetjer. European Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art by Artists Born before 1865: A Summary Catalogue. New York, 1995, p. 9.
Gert Kreytenberg. Orcagna, Andrea di Cione: ein universelle Künstler der Gotik in Florenz. Mainz am Rhein, 2000, pp. 64-65 n. 128.
Dillian Gordon. The Italian Paintings Before 1400. London, 2011, pp. 92-106.