Scroll of Deities of the Diamond World Mandala, Handscroll; ink and color on paper, Japan

Scroll of Deities of the Diamond World Mandala

Heian period (794–1185)
dated 1083
Handscroll; ink and color on paper
11 3/4 in. x 17 ft. 9 1/4 in. (29.8 x 541.7 cm)
Credit Line:
The Harry G. C. Packard Collection of Asian Art, Gift of Harry G. C. Packard, and Purchase, Fletcher, Rogers, Harris Brisbane Dick, and Louis V. Bell Funds, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, and The Annenberg Fund Inc. Gift, 1975
Accession Number:
Not on view
This iconographic handscroll features representations of the thirty-seven principal Buddhist deities from the Diamond World Mandala, along with auxiliary deities, amounting to a total of forty-nine deities. According to an inscription, it was copied from a scroll belonging to the temple Zentō-in on Mount Hiei in Shiga prefecture. Zentō-in, in fact, possesses a scroll very similar to this one. Known as the Scroll of the Thirty-Seven Deities, the Zentō-in scroll was brought to Japan from China by the founder of the Tendai School, Saichō (767–822), in 806. Distinct from the Diamond World Mandala of Kūkai's (774–835) Shingon School (see example), in which bodhisattvas are shown sitting on lotus thrones, this Tendai School scroll depicts bodhisattvas riding animals and birds. The identities of some of the deities in the scroll are indicated with Sanskrit letters, while the attributes held by others are noted with Chinese characters. Scrolls such as this one were often copied by initiates into Esoteric Buddhism as a means of instruction, but the fine line work of this scroll indicates that it was brushed by a professional artist. It may have been used as a model for the production of hanging-scroll format painted mandalas.
[ Harry G. C. Packard , Tokyo, until 1975; donated and sold to MMA].
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Seasonal Pleasures in Japanese Art, Part II," May 1, 1996–September 8, 1996.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Enlightening Pursuits," February 28, 2001–August 5, 2001.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "No Ordinary Mortals: The Human Figure in Japanese Art," 2007–2008.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Ukiyo-e Artists' Responses to Romantic Legends of Two Brothers: Narihira and Yukihira," March 27, 2008–June 8, 2008.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Japanese Mandalas: Emanations and Avatars," June 18, 2009–November 30, 2009.