This adorned ceremonial horse bit was probably made for an important figure of the Royal court of Naples, at this time ruled by the French family of Anjou.
The iron mouthpiece, according to contemporary equestrian manuals, was designed for horses with a hard mouth and widely-split lips. The U-shaped curb bar, attached to the mouthpiece and pierced with trefoils and quatrefoils, was placed around the lower jaw. It would have pressed the sensitive chin of the horse when the reins were pulled. The long gilded shanks are decorated with several four-sided knobs bearing dragons and birds on enameled backgrounds. The remaining large side boss is decorated with a square shield bearing a coat of arms: barry Or and Sable (gold and black), placed in a quatrefoil, and surrounded by gilded birds on a blue and red enameled background. The other boss, preserved in the musée de Cluny, in Paris, bears the arms of another family: Azure (blue), a bend between a star and a crescent Or. These two coat of arms are also visible on the hooks’ tabs at the top that were hanging the bit from the bridle, as well as on both sides of the right swivel rein ring (the left swivel was replaced during its working life).
The barry Or and Sable arms probably belongs to the Ceva family, which was close to the Angevin rulers at that time. One of its members, Giovanni, is known to have been the stratigoto (an official judge) of King Robert I of Anjou (1277-1343) in the city of Salerno. We do not have more information about his life, but it is not impossible that the bit belonged to either him or one of his close relatives. The second coat of arms possibly belongs to a branch of the Benoist family, which originated from the south of France.
The association of these coat of arms would have symbolized the marital alliance of these two families. Therefore this bit could have been made at the occasion of a wedding, and then used by one the spouses during parades or other official festivities and ceremonies taking place at the Neapolitan court. The ornamental parts of the bit were made by a French workshop in Naples or by local goldsmiths working in the French taste.
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Date:second quarter 14th century
Medium:Iron, copper alloy, enamel, gold
Dimensions:L. of branches, 12 3/4 in. (32.39 cm); W. of mouthpiece, 4 in. (10.16 cm); Wt. 3 lb. 9 oz. (1616 g); plaque (b): 3 11/16 x 3 11/16 in. (9.4 x 9.4 cm)
Credit Line:Rogers Fund, 1904
Accession Number:04.3.478a, b
Marking: On the bir boss, and
Charles Maurice Camille de Talleyrand-Périgord, Duc de Dino, Paris (until 1904; sold to MMA).
Louisville, Ky. J. B. Speed Art Museum. "A Loan Exhibition of Equestrian Equipment from the Metropolitan Museum of Art," May 4–July 3, 1955, no. 12.
Catalogue des objets d'art de Haute Curiosite et d'ameublement composant l'importante collection de M. Ch. Stein. Paris: Galerie Georges Petit, May 10–14, 1886. p. 14, no. 53 (a similar bit illustrated and described, called Limoges, XIII century).
Seyssel d'Aix, Vittorio. Armeria Antica E Moderna Di S.m. Carlo Alberto. Vol. 2. Turin: Stabilimento Tipografico Fontana, 1898. no. D58, pl. 80 (a similar bit illustrated).
Cosson, Charles Alexander. Le Cabinet d'Armes de Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Duc de Dino. Paris: E. Rouveyre, 1901. p. 50, no. E. 10, pl. 22.
Laking, Guy Francis, Sir, Charles Alexander Cosson, and Francis Henry Cripps-Day. A Record of European Armour and Arms Through Seven Centuries. Vol. III. London: G. Bell and Sons, 1920. p. 161, fig. 965, ill.
Tóth, Zoltán. "Ueber die mittelalterlichen Hebelstangentrensen des ungarischen Nationalmuseums." Zietschrift fur Historische Waffenkunde (1926), p. 5.
Mann, J. G. "The Lost Armoury of the Gonzagas, Part II: The Libro Aquila." The Archaeological Journal (1943), p. 36, pl. XXXVIII.
Grancsay, Stephen V. A Loan Exhibition of Equestrian Equipment from the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Catalogue. Louisville, Ky.: Speed Art Museum, 1955. no. 12, ill.
Kalmár, János. Régi Magyar Fegyverek. Budapest: Natura, 1971. p. 352, fig. 40.
Gaitzsch, Wofgang. "Ein westeuropäisches Pferdegeschirr des späten 13. Jahrhunderts aus Pergamon." Istanbuler Mitteilungen 37 pp. 218–256 (a related bit bearing similar heraldic arms).
Nickel, Helmut. "Arms and Armor from the Permanent Collection." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (Summer 1991), pp. 13, 64, ill.
Viallon, Marina. "New Research on a Rare Enameled Horse Bit from the Angevin Court at Naples." Metropolitan Museum Journal (2019), pp. 125–35, figs. 1a, b, 5.
Viallon, Marina. "Nouvelles Recherches sue un Rare Mors de Cheval Émaillé de la Tour Angevine de Naples." La Lettre du Club International d'Eperonnerie (July 2020), pp. 13–26, figs. 1, 4.
Viallon, Marina. "New Research on a Rare Enameled Horse Bit from the Angevin Court at Naples." La Lettre du Club International d'Eperonnerie (July 2020), pp. 27–37, figs. 1, 4.
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