Art/ Collection/ Art Object

Qur'an of Ibrahim Sultan

Ibrahim Sultan
Object Name:
Non-illustrated manuscript
dated A.H. 830/A.D. 1427
Attributed to Iran, probably Shiraz
Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper; leather binding
H. 8 1/8 in. (20.6 cm)
W. 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm)
Spine: 1 7/8 in. (4.8 cm)
Credit Line:
Gift of Alexander Smith Cochran, 1913
Accession Number:
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 455
Ibrahim Sultan (1394–1435), grandson of Timur and governor of Shiraz, was a patron of the book arts and an accomplished calligrapher in his own right. This Qur'an manuscript, executed in an elegant naskh script, was written by the ruler himself, signed and dated to June 1427. Ibrahim Sultan is said to have copied at least five manuscripts of the Qur'an and to have composed the calligraphic inscriptions for two schools he established in Shiraz.
Signature: Signed and dated on colophon page

Inscription: In Arabic (vol. 2, folio 268b): "This exalted book, i.e. the glorious Qur'an, which was written by the grandson of the most magnificent sultan of the age and the greatest emperor of the era, Sultan Ibrahim son of Mirza Shahrukh son of (Amir Timur Lord of the Conjunction) (may [God] cause them to dwell in highest paradise), has been entrusted to my safe-keeping, and I resort to the stronghold of His all-encompassing grace and the intercession of His Apostle when He resurrects bones to ashes. Aurangzeb son of the sultan of sultans, Most Just of Emperors, Shihab al-Din Muhammad [Shah Jahan Padishah Ghazi] the Second Lord of the Conjunction (may his kingdom and power last forever) in the months of the year 1048 of the hegira..." (Translated by Wheeler M. Thackston, 4/7/1987)

صدق الله العلي العظیم و صدق رسوله النبي الکریم و نحن علی ذلک من الشاهدین و الحمد لله رب العالمین

کتبه اضعف عباد الله الرحمن ابراهیم سلطان بن شاهرخ بن تیمور گورکان عفی الله عنه و غفر سیآته في رابع رمضان المبارک حجة ثلاثین و ثمانمائة الهجرة النبویة
بإسمه سبحانه
هذا الکتاب المستطاب و الخطاب الناطق بالصواب اعني/ القرآن الکریم و الفرقان العظیم الذي هو بخط حافد اعظم سلاطین الزمان/ و افخم خواقین الدوران سلطان ابرهیم بن میرزا شاهرخ بن/ (امیر تیمور صاحب القران)/ اسکنهم (الله تعالی) اعلی فرادیس الجنان قد ودعه لدي و اوجب/ حفظه عليّ و انا المتوسل بحبل لطفه العمیم و شفاعة رسوله حین/ یحیي العظام و هي رمیم اورنگ زیب بن سلطان السلاطین و اعدل الخواقین/ شهاب الدین محمد صاحب القران الثاني (شاه جهان پادشاه الغازي) خلد ملکه و سلطانه/ في شهور سنة ثمان و اربعین و الف من الهجرة النبویة علی صاحبها/ اجزل الصلوة و التحیة


Marking: Seals and notes of the Mughal emperors
Alexander Smith Cochran, Yonkers, NY (until 1913; gifted to MMA)
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Celestial Pen: Islamic Calligraphy," September 28, 1982–February 7, 1983, no catalogue.

Washington. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. "Timur and the Princely Vision. Persian Art and Culture in the Fifteenth Century," April 14, 1989–July 6, 1989, no. 22.

Los Angeles. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "Timur and the Princely Vision. Persian Art and Culture in the Fifteenth Century," August 13, 1989–November 5, 1989, no. 22.

Jackson, A. V. Williams, and A. Yohannan. Catalogue of the Collection of Persian Manuscripts, Including also some Turkish and Arabic, Presented to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York by Alexander Smith Cochran. Columbia University Indo Iranian Series, vol. 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1912. no. 23, pp. 172-177.

Valentiner, William Reinhold. "The Cochran Collection of Persian Manuscripts." Museum of Metropolitan Art Bulletin, old series, vol. 8 (1913). pp. 80-86.

Lentz, Thomas W., and Glenn D. Lowry. "Persian Art and Culture in the Fifteenth Century." In Timur and the Princely Vision. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1989. no. 22, pp. 84, 332-333, ill. p. 84 (color).

Related Objects

Qur'an of Ibrahim Sultan

Artist: Ibrahim Sultan Date: dated A.H. 830/A.D. 1427 Medium: Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper Accession: 13.228.2 On view in:Not on view

Divan (Collected Works) of Jami

Artist: Maulana Nur al-Din `Abd al-Rahman Jami (1414–92) Date: ca. 1480 Medium: Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper; leather binding Accession: 13.228.4 On view in:Gallery 455

Kitab suwar al-kawakib al-thabita (Book of the Images of the Fixed Stars) of al-Sufi

Artist: `Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Iranian, Rey 903–986 Shiraz) Date: late 15th century Medium: Ink and gold on paper; leather binding Accession: 13.160.10 On view in:Gallery 453

Khamsa (Quintet) of Nizami

Artist: Nizami (Ilyas Abu Muhammad Nizam al-Din of Ganja) (probably 1141–1217) Date: 15th century Medium: Ink, opaque watercolor, silver, and gold on paper Accession: On view in:Gallery 455

"Conquest of Baghdad by Timur", Folio from a Zafarnama (Book of Victories)

Artist: Sharaf al-din 'Ali Yazdi (1424–54) Date: Dhu'l Hijja 839 A.H./A.D. June–July 1436 Medium: Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper Accession: 55.121.17 On view in:Gallery 455