The Count-Duke of Olivares was Philip IV’s powerful prime minister between 1621 and 1643. Although of extremely fine quality and incorporating differences, this picture is probably a reduced variant of a life-size equestrian portrait of the count-duke in the Museo del Prado, Madrid. It may have been painted by his son-in-law, Juan Bautista del Mazo—possibly with Velazquez’s intervention. Olivares is shown in full armor and holding a baton, as a victorious commander. His horse holds a dressage position known as a levade. In the background smoke rises from the battlefield.