Souvenir, Jean-Nicolas Defer (master 1783, active 1793), Gold, enamel, ivory, French, Paris


Jean-Nicolas Defer (master 1783, active 1793)
Scenes after paintings by Jean Siméon Chardin (French, Paris 1699–1779 Paris)
French, Paris
Gold, enamel, ivory
3 1/2 x 2 1/4 in. (8.9 x 5.7cm)
Metalwork-Gold and Platinum
Credit Line:
Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917
Accession Number:
Not on view
In eighteenth-century Europe, Paris led the production of high-quality luxury goods. Parisian goldsmiths made a wide range of small, personal articles such as snuffboxes; étuis to hold sealing wax, tweezers, or utensils for sewing; souvenirs, which contained thin ivory tablets for note taking; and shuttles for knotting lace. Gold snuffboxes and boxes decorated with portrait miniatures were prized and frequently given as royal gifts, often to ambassadors or members of the court in lieu of cash payments for their services. Coveted and admired, these boxes were produced from a variety of materials. The best were skillfully made of gold and embellished with diamonds, enameled decoration, lacquer, and other luxurious materials. By the middle of the century, the taking of snuff had become an entrenched social ritual, and the snuffbox, too, had become an important social prop. Snuffboxes were considered highly fashionable accessories, with some merchants advertising new boxes with each change of season. The popularity of snuffboxes extended to all levels of society, and for those who could not afford gold, boxes were produced in less expensive materials such as silver, tortoiseshell, porcelain, or domestically produced lacquer.
Marking: [1] crowned fleur-de-lis, 2 grains de remède, JND, device a croix de chevalier (maker's mark); [2] interlaced L's (Paris charge mark for gold and small silver 1782–89); [3] crowned P and 84 (Paris warden's mark, 1784–85).
Baron Schröder (until 1910; sale, Christie, Manson and Woods, July 6, 1910, no. 79, to Wertheimer); [ Charles Wertheimer (from 1910) ] ; J. Pierpont Morgan (until 1917; to MMA)