Architectural Ensemble from a Jain Meeting Hall, Teak with traces of color, India (Gujarat, Patan)

Architectural Ensemble from a Jain Meeting Hall

last quarter of 16th century
India (Gujarat, Patan)
Teak with traces of color
H. (approx.) 15 ft. (4.58 cm)
Credit Line:
Gift of Robert W. and Lockwood de Forest, 1916
Accession Number:
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 243
The carved wooden dome, balconies and supports of this architectural ensemble belonged to the gudha-mandapa (meeting and prayer hall) of the Vadi Parshvanatha Jain temple in Patan, Gujarat. The temple was dedicated on May 13, 1596. During the renovation and enlargement of the temple in the early twentieth century, this portion of the building was discarded; nothing of the original structure survives in Patan. Some of its elements—in particular, the eight large figures of musicians and dancers that rose toward the dome—were lost and are known only from early photographs. The figures carved around the dome are the ashtakikpalas (eight regents of the directions). Traces of pigment suggest that the interior of the structure was once painted.

The location of the Museum's structure in the original mandapa is uncertain; it probably rested on top of the flat roof and allowed sunlight into the building. In this installation, one of the four sides, which has had a great many plaster restorations, has been left off so that the ensemble can be easily viewed. The original metal grillwork that kept bats and birds from the interior of the mandapa has not survived; it has been replaced with wider wooden grating.

This particularly fine and elaborate early Gujarati wood carving is the type that was translated into stone by craftsmen of the great Mughal emperor Akbar in the sixteenth century on some buildings at Fatehpur-Sikri (City of Victory) and at the harem at the Red Fort in Agra.
#7980. Overview: Jain Meeting Hall
For Audio Guide tours and information, visit
[ Munchersa Heeramaneck , Bombay, India, ca. 1908 until 1916; sold to the de Forests]; Robert W. De Forest and Lockwood De Forest (until 1916; donated to MMA) and Lockwood de Forest, Santa Barbara, CA (until 1916; given to MMA)
Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "The Peaceful Conquerors: Jain Art from India," October 30, 1994–January 15, 1995.

Fort Worth. Kimbell Art Museum. "The Peaceful Conquerors: Jain Art from India," February 23, 1995–May 14, 1995.

New Orleans Museum of Art. "The Peaceful Conquerors: Jain Art from India," June 29, 1995–September 17, 1995.

London. Victoria and Albert Museum. "The Peaceful Conquerors: Jain Art from India," November 22, 1995–February 18, 1996.