Art/ Collection/ Art Object

明 丁雲鵬 十八羅漢圖 卷
Eighteen Luohans

Ding Yunpeng (Chinese, 1547–after 1621)
Ming dynasty (1368–1644)
dated 1609
Handscroll; ink on paper
8 1/4 x 92 in. (21 x 233.7 cm)
Credit Line:
Purchase, Friends of Asian Art Gifts, 1996
Accession Number:
Not on view
Luohans (arhats, in Sanskrit), disciples of the Buddha, were widely regarded in China as guardian saints who remained in the world as protectors of the Buddhist faithful until the coming of the future Buddha. As the Ming dynasty began to unravel from political corruption, the cult of the luohans enjoyed widespread popularity as people were increasingly attracted to messianic religious movements with their promise of salvation from the ills of this life. It was in this context that a new expressionistic style of Buddhist painting arose. Ding Yunpeng was one of the initiators of this revival.

Eighteen Luohans presents a fusion of Ding's earlier meticulous fine-line drawing style with the psychological intensity of his later archaistic manner. Painted when he was sixty-two, the images demonstrate qualities of introspection and serene strength. His pale sensitive brushwork draws the viewer into the composition like a guided meditation. Like the path of gradual enlightenment that the ascetics epitomize, these images are not instantly comprehensible to the viewer but must be contemplated slowly, one by one. It is only then that one discovers their striking individuality and spiritual force.
Inscription: Artist's inscription and signature (1 column in standard script)


Artist’s seals


Label strip

Luo Zhenyu 羅振玉 (1866–1940), 1 column in semi-cursive/standard script, undated; 1 illegible seal:


Collectors’ seals

Dai Zhi 戴植 (19th c.)

Chen Baochen 陳寳琛 (1848-1935)
[ James Singer , London, until 1996; sold to MMA]
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The New Chinese Galleries: An Inaugural Installation," 1997.

Related Objects

Song of the Lute

Artist: Ding Yunpeng (Chinese, 1547–after 1621) Date: 1585 Medium: Hanging scroll; ink and color on paper Accession: 13.100.22 On view in:Gallery 210

Landscape after Dong Yuan, Juran, Ma Yuan, and Xia Gui

Artist: Li Zai (Chinese, active 17th century) ? Date: dated yiwei 乙未, 1655? Medium: Handscroll; ink and color on paper Accession: 1977.87 On view in:Gallery 213

Streams and Mountains without End

Artist: Zhao Zuo (Chinese, ca. 1570–after 1630) Date: Dated 1611–12 Medium: Handscroll; ink and color on paper Accession: 1976.219 On view in:Gallery 210

Invitation to Reclusion at Jingxi

Artist: Dong Qichang (Chinese, 1555–1636) Date: 1611 Medium: Handscroll; ink on paper Accession: 1990.318 On view in:Gallery 211

Remote Valleys and Deep Forests

Artist: Liu Yu (Chinese, 1620–after 1689) Date: dated 1678 Medium: Handscroll; ink and color on paper Accession: 2017.327.4 On view in:Gallery 210