Coptic; Possibly from the Kasr Deir es Surian (Castle of the Monastery of the Syrians), Wadi an–Natrun, Egypt; Written and illustrated in Egypt
Inscribed in abbreviated Coptic: Jesus Christ Victorious
Ink and colored inks on parchment; 5 7/8 x 3 15/16 in. (14.9 x 10 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1919 (19.196.5)
Crosses worked in interlaced geometric patterns often appear in Coptic manuscripts. Wealthier monasteries would have had manuscripts even after the Arab conquest of the region in the mid-600s. Coptic, the latest stage of the Egyptian language, is written using the Greek alphabet with seven additional signs. The Arabic text to the right side of each page was for those who could no longer read Coptic.