Art/ Collection/ Art Object


16th–17th century with later additions
Democratic Republic of the Congo; Angola; Republic of the Congo
Kongo peoples; Kongo Kingdom
Solid cast brass (Christ), solid cast copper alloy (halo); hollow cast bronze (three end pieces), brass sheet (one end piece), solid cast copper alloy (Mary); forged copper and brass (nails), wood
H. 18 in. (45.7 cm), W. 8 1/2 in. (21.6 cm), D. 3/4 in. (1.8 cm)
Credit Line:
Gift of Ernst Anspach, 1999
Accession Number:
Not on view
At its height in the fifteenth century, the Kongo kingdom was one of the largest in all of sub-Saharan Africa, spanning 115,000 square miles. Centered on an extremely strong monarchy, the elaborate social structure was pervasive across a complex system of trade and interchange between the forest of the north and the coast and savannah plains to the south.

In 1491, the Kongo king Nzinga converted to Christianity, thereby strengthening ties with his counterpart in Portugal. The adoption of Christianity allowed the kings of Kongo to participate in an international community of leaders beyond Portugal that included the Vatican. The Kongo kings found that local religious beliefs had significant parallels with Christianity and so they were easily able to synthesize the two. They did not feel that they had renounced one for the other.

The cross, a primary emblem of Christian ritual, was also a fundamental motif at the core of Kongo belief systems. The Kongo icon, called the Four Moments of the Sun, is a circle around a Roman cross. It depicts the four divisions of the day—dawn, noon, dusk, and midnight—which represents the cyclical journey of a human life from birth to the afterlife of the ancestors.

Fifteenth-century Kongo Christian artifacts such as this one are closely modeled on European prototypes. They were usually cast in an open mold using metal obtained from brass units of currency known as manillas, imported from Europe. In this work, Christ's hair and beard are distinctly European. The facial expression is anguished, with closed eyes, an open mouth, and a furrowed brow. The modeling of the figure is naturalistic and the proportions relate to European sculpture. Additionally, he is depicted with a fiery halo. All of these elements are clearly retentions of European models.
[Jeanne Walschot, Brussels]; (Sotheby's New York, May 8,1989, no. 71); Ernst Anspach, New York, 1989–1999

LaGamma, Alisa. Kongo: Power and Majesty. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2015, pp. 106–107, fig. 62.

Related Objects

Bes-image of the god Hor-Asha-Khet

Artist: Date: 4th–2nd century B.C.
Accession Number: 29.2.3
Date: 4th–2nd century B.C. Medium: Bronze; gold, electrum, auriferous-silver, copper and copper-alloy inlays Accession: 29.2.3 On view in:Gallery 134

Mask (Kagle)

Artist: Date: 19th–20th century
Accession Number: 1986.481.2
Date: 19th–20th century Medium: Wood, brass tacks, nails, cane, dried mud Accession: 1986.481.2 On view in:Gallery 352

Pendant: Saint Anthony of Padua

Artist: Date: 16th–19th century
Accession Number: 1999.295.1
Date: 16th–19th century Medium: Partially hollow cast brass Accession: 1999.295.1 On view in:Gallery 352

Triple Crucifix

Artist: Date: Central figure,16th–17th century; top and bottom figures, 18th–19th century
Accession Number: 1999.295.15
Date: Central figure,16th–17th century; top and bottom figures, 18th–19th century Medium: Central figure: brass (open back cast); top and bottom figures: brass (solid cast); nails: iron (forged), copper, brass (forged), wood, ultramarine pigment Accession: 1999.295.15 On view in:Not on view

Cross: Saint Anthony of Padua

Artist: Date: Pendant figure, 16th–18th century; cross, 19th century
Accession Number: 1999.295.14
Date: Pendant figure, 16th–18th century; cross, 19th century Medium: Solid cast brass, lead-tin alloy sheet, wood Accession: 1999.295.14 On view in:Not on view