The Castle above the Meadows (Liber Studiorum, part II, plate 8)
Designed and etched by Joseph Mallord William Turner (British, London 1775–1851 London)
Engraved and published by Charles Turner (British, Woodstock, Oxfordshire 1774–1857 London)
Etching and mezzotint; first state of four
plate: 7 1/16 x 10 5/16 in. (17.9 x 26.2 cm) sheet: 8 1/8 x 11 1/2 in. (20.6 x 29.2 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1928
Not on view
Turner distilled his ideas about landscape In "Liber Studiorum" (Latin for Book of Studies), a series of seventy prints plus a frontispiece published between 1807 and 1819. To establish the compositions, he made brown watercolor drawings, then etched outlines onto copper plates. Professional engravers usually developed the tone under Turner's direction, and Charles Turner here added mezzotint to detail peaceful meadows near a ruined castle on a rocky hill, with the foreground enlivened by boy piping near cows. Published states of the print include the letters "EP" in the upper margin, applied by Turner to landscapes within the set that echo the Arcadian sensibility of Claude and likely standing for Elevated Pastoral, but they are lacking from this first state.
Signature: in plate: "Drawn & Etch'd by J.M.W. Turner Esq-r R.A.P.P. / Engraved by Chas Turner"
Inscription: in plate, above image: "EP"; below: "London. Published Feby 20, 1808, by C. Turner, No. 50, Warren Street Fitzroy Square."
Vendor: P. & D. Colnaghi & Co.
Finberg 8 i/iv; Rawlinson 8 i/iv
William George Rawlinson Turner's Liber Studiorum: A Description and A Catalogue. Macmillan & Co., 2nd ed. London, 1906, cat. no. 8 i/iv, pp. 27-8.
Alexander Joseph Finberg The History of Turner's Liber Studiorum, with a new catalogue raisonné. Ernest Benn Limited, London, 1924, cat. no. 8 i/iv, pp. 30-32.
Gillian Forrester Turner's 'Drawing Book': The Liber Studiorum, exh. cat., London, Tate Gallery, 20 February–2 June. London, 1996, Illustrates: related watercolor, ca. 1806 (Tate Britain), and first published state, 1808, cat. no. 8, pp. 54-55.