This cartouche-shaped plaque was created from a single sheet of solid steel, whose wide, flat border encloses a hemistich referring to Batul (a title associated with Fatima, The Prophet Muhammad’s daughter, and Imam Ali’s wife) and her two sons (Hasan and Husayn). The verse is from a poem extolling names of the chahardah maʿsum, or the fourteen infallible ones (the Prophet, Fatima, and the twelve imams). Such plaques were once part of a larger epigraphic ensembles that served both a decorative and invocative function. They often adorned the doors of shrines, mosques, and theological schools.
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Date:probably late 17th century
Geography:Attributed to Iran
Medium:Steel; forged and pierced
Dimensions:H. 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm) W. 15 in. (38.1 cm)
Credit Line:Rogers Fund, 1987
Executed in polished steel, a bold calligraphic inscription courses across a field of swirling vine scrolls on this cartouche-shaped plaque. The effortless quality of the finely finished letters, suspended in a trellis of cutwork arabesques, belies the density of the material and the skill required to produce this masterful work. Similar gold and silver plaques are known from important Shi‘i shrines in Iran, where they served as inscriptions on entryway doors and on the grilles (zarih) surrounding the cenotaphs of important personages. The text and form indicate that this plaque may once have served a decorative and invocative function within a venerated tomb or other religious context.
The Metropolitan’s piece belongs to a group of eight related plaques, each containing a hemistich (misra‘) of an Arabic poem identified as a versification of the Chahardah Ma‘sum, written in praise of the Fourteen Infallibles, including Fatima, ‘Ali, and the Twelve Shi‘i Imams. The main text of the poem consists of four lines, comprising eight misra‘. It reads as follows:
بنبي عربي و رسول مدني
و اخيه اسد الله مسمي بعلي
و بزهراء بتول و باُم ولدتها
و بسبطيه هما نجل و زكي
و بالسجاد و بالباقر و الصادق حقاً
و بموسي و علي و تقي و نقي
و بذي العسكر الحجة القائم بالحق
الذي يضرب بالسيف بحكم ازلي
This plaque contains the third misra‘ of the poem, which refers to Fatima, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, and to his wife Khadija, mother of Fatima. While none of the known plaques in this group bears the first and eighth misra‘ of the poem, the remaining portions appear in published examples. The duplication of the second and seventh misra‘ within the group suggests that at least two different sets of plaques of similar size and shape were produced.
These plaques may have once formed a broader program of architectural decoration, being displayed along with other pierced-steel plaques, of various shapes and sizes, containing other sacred texts. Some surviving examples display dates in the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century; at least one includes the signature of its calligrapher. While many of these plaques appear similar at first glance, subtle differences in the calligraphy, vine-scroll density, and border profiles make it likely that multiple sets of finely wrought steel plaques once adorned important shrines and royal tombs throughout Persia during the Safavid period.
Denise-Marie Teece (author) in [Ekhtiar, Soucek, Canby, and Haidar 2011]
1. A set of 166 pierced and inscribed gold plaques was ordered by Shah Tahmasp for the shrine of Imam Riza at Mashhad in 1550–51. Later, in 1606–7, another set of solid gold plaques was ordered by his grandson Shah ‘Abbas I. For more on these, see Canby, Sheila. "Royal Gifts to Safavid Shrines." In Muraqqa'e Sharqi: Studies in Honor of Peter Chelkowski, edited by Soussie Rastegar and Anna Vanzan, Dogana and Serravalle, Republic of San Marino, 2007, esp. pp. 65–66; also Canby, Sheila. Shah 'Abbas: The Remaking of Iran, London: British Museum Press, 2009, pp. 189–93; and The Arts Of Islam. Exhibition, Hayward Gallery, London, London, 1976, p. 204, no 247. See also Samadi, H. Museum of Meshed. Tehran, 1950 (three unnumbered plates). For the Shah ‘Abbas set, see Allan, J[ames] W. "Silver Door Facings of the Safavid Period." Iran 33 (1995), pp. 123–37. A somewhat similar set of plaques, executed in carved ivory, once adorned the cenotaph of Shah Isma‘il in Ardabil. See Thompson, John and Sheila Canby. Hunt for Paradise. Court Arts of Safavid Iran 1501–1576. Exhibition catalogue, Milan and London, 2003, no. 8.26, and Hillenbrand, R. 2003 (thanks to Sheila Canby for this reference).[reference not in catalogue's bibliography]
2. Melikian-Chirvani, A. "The Transition to the Safavid Period: The Evidence of Metalwork and its Epigraphy." In Transition Periods in Iranian History: Actes du Symposium de Fribourg-en-Brisgau (22–24 Mai 1985) Studia Iranica. Cahier 5, Paris, 1987, p. 192, for discussion of its "history." See also Allan, James and Brian Gilmour. Persian Steel: The Tanavoli Collection. Oxford Studies in Islamic Art, 15, Oxford, 2000, pp. 294ff., esp. p. 296 n. 61, and Welch, Stuart Cary. "Islamic Art; A Safavid Pierced-Steel Plaque." In Recent Acquisitions: A Selection, 1986–1987; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 11, New York, 1987.
3. An identification, transliteration, and rough translation of the text first appeared in the Sotheby’s London catalogue of April 16, 1986, lot 182, with a reference acknowledging Melikian-Chirvani’s forthcoming publication. See Melikian-Chirvani 1987 (note 2), pp. 190–91, for his transcription and English translation of the inscription as found on a tombstone in a mausoleum near Ardistan. A. Ghouchani has provided a transcription here of the poem that varies slightly from the one published by Melikian-Chirvani.
4. See Allan, James. Persian Steel: Masterpieces of Iranian Art. London, 2004, pp. 296–97 and n. 61, and the following enumeration of eight closely related pieces: Misra‘ 2: London (Victoria and Albert Museum, no. M 5.1919; in London 1976 (note 1), p. 199, no. 234); and Copenhagen (David Collection, no. 25 /1994; in Sultan, Shah, and Great Mughal: The History and Culture of the Islamic World. Exhibition, National Museum, Copenhagen. Catalogue by Kjeld von Folsach, Torben Lundbaek, Peder Mortensen, and others. Copenhagen, 1996, no. 265). Misra‘ 3: New York (Metropolitan Museum, acc. no. 1987.14; in Sotheby’s London, October 12, 1982, lot 71, and The Unity of Islamic Art: An Exhibition to Inaugurate the Islamic Art Gallery of the King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1405AH/ 1985AD. Exhibition, Islamic Art Gallery, Riyadh. Catalogue by Oliver Hoare and Esin Atil. Riyadh, 1985, no. 96). Misra‘ 4: location unknown (Hoare and Atil 1985, no. 96). Misra‘ 5: location unknown (Sotheby’s London, April 16, 1986, lot 181). Misra‘ 6: location unknown (Sotheby’s London, October 15, 1985, lot 218). Misra‘ 7: Malaysian collection (Sotheby’s London, April 16, 1986, lot 182); Calligraphie islamique: Textes sacrés et profanes/ Islamic Calligraphy: Sacred and Secular Writings. Exhibition, Musee d’Art et d’Histoire, Geneva, and other venues. Catalogue by David [Lewis] James and others. Geneva, 1988, no. 25); another in the Freer and Sackler Galleries, Washington, D.C. (no. 1997.21).
5. In addition to variations in calligraphic composition and the thickness of their borders, the spirals are more tightly drawn on the David Collection piece than on the Victoria and Albert example. Comparable differences are seen between the Freer and Malaysian pieces.
6. Allan and Gilmour 2000 (note 2), pp. 294ff.
7. Melikian-Chirvani, A. Le Chant du Monde: L'Art de l' Iran Safavide 1501–1736. Exhibition, Musee du Louvre, Paris. Catalogue by A. Melikian-Chirvani, 2007, p. 421, no. 166, for the British Museum vertical oval plaque dated A.H. 1105 /1693–94 A.D. (no. OA + 368). In the same catalogue, see the previously unpublished plaque no. 61, dated A.H. 972/1564–65 A.D. See also the horizontal oval plaque sold at Sotheby’s London, April 1, 2009, lot 111, and again at Christie’s, April 23, 1996, lot 224 (with restoration) signed "written by Muhammad Riza." He has been identified with the seventeenth-century calligrapher Muhammad Riza al-Imami. For more on this calligrapher, see Pickett, Douglas. "Inscriptions by Muhammad Rida al-Imami." Iran 22 (1984), pp. 91–102; and Canby 2009 (note 1), p. 235, no. 114.
Inscription: In Arabic in thuluth script:
و بزهراء بتول و باُم ولدتها And by Zahra’ the Immaculate One and the Mother who bore her
بنبي عربي و رسول مدني و اخيه اسد الله مسمي بعلي
و بزهراء بتول و باُم ولدتها و بسبطيه هما نجل و زكي
و بالسجاد و بالباقر و الصادق حقاً و بموسي و علي و تقي و نقي
و بذي العسكر الحجة القائم بالحق الذي يضرب بالسيف بحكم ازلي
(From: Masterpieces from the Department of Islamic Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Ekhtiar, Soucek, Canby, and Haidar, eds., 2011, p. 241)
Sir Charles Marling, England (early 1900s–at least 1931); Marling family, England, by descent (until 1987); [ Ahuan U.K., Ltd., 1987; sold to MMA]
London. Burlington House. "International Exhibition of Persian Art," January 7, 1931–February 28, 1931, nos. 317, 318.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Balcony Calligraphy Exhibition," June 1–October 26, 2009, no catalogue.
Wilson, Arnold T. Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Persian Art. 3rd. ed. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1931. nos. 317, 318, p. 178.
The Arts of Islam. London, 1976. no. 247, p. 204.
Melikian-Chirvani, A. S. "The Transition to the Safavid Period: The Evidence of Metalwork and Its Epigraphy." Transition Periods in Iranian History (1987). pp. 181–203.
Allan, James, and Brian Gilmour. Persian Steel: The Tanavoli Collection. Oxford, 2000. pp. 294ff.
Allan, James. Persian Steel: Masterpieces of Iranian Art. London, 2004. pp. 296–97.
Canby, Sheila R. "Royal Gifts to Safavid Shrines." Muraqqa'e Sharqi: Studies in Honor of Peter Chelkowski (2007). pp. 57–68, 220–29.
Welch, Stuart Carey. "Islamic Art; A Safavid Pierced Steel Plaque." Recent Acquisitions: A Selection, 1986–1987; The Metropolitan Museum of Art vol. 44 (1986–1987). p. 11, ill. (b/w).
Schimmel, Annemarie. "Islamic Calligraphy." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., vol. 50, no. 1 (Summer 1992). pp. 44, 46, ill. fig. 55 (b/w).
Thompson, Jon, and Sheila R. Canby, ed. "Court Arts of Safavid Iran 1501–1576." In Hunt for Paradise. Milan; New York: Skira , 2003. no. 8.26, (related).
Melikian-Chirvani, Assadullah. "L'Art de l' Iran Safavide 1501–1736." In Le Chant du Monde. Paris: Musée du Louvre, 2007. no. 166, p. 421, ill. (related: British Museum, London, no. OA+368).
Ekhtiar, Maryam, Priscilla P. Soucek, Sheila R. Canby, and Navina Haidar, ed. Masterpieces from the Department of Islamic Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1st ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011. no. 166, pp. 241–42, ill. p. 241 (color).
Ekhtiar, Maryam. How to Read Islamic Calligraphy. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018. pp. 15–16, ill. fig. 3.
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Painting by 'Ali Quli Jabbadar (Iranian, active second half 17th century)
dated A.H. 1048/ 1673–74 CE
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