The Connoisseur

Honoré Daumier (French, Marseilles 1808–1879 Valmondois)
ca. 1860–65
Pen and ink, wash, watercolor, lithographic crayon, and gouache over black chalk on wove paper
17 1/4 x 14 in. (43.8 x 35.5cm)
Credit Line:
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929
Accession Number:
Not on view
Daumier spent most of his life drawing for the wide audience reached by France's popular press. But when he was temporarily let go from the magazine "Le Charivari" in 1860, he began to produce highly finished watercolors designed particularly for collectors. The Paris art market of the late nineteenth century, no longer the exclusive realm of princes and barons, flourished thanks to the keen interest of art-loving lawyers, bankers, industrialists, and merchants. Daumier often pictured the broad spectrum of enthusiasts attending exhibitions or visiting artists' studios; here he portrayed the model connoisseur engaged in the rapt contemplation of his collection.

The special object of this collector's appreciation is a tabletop replica of the Venus de Milo, the monumental Greek marble that came to symbolize the beauty of antique art upon its installation in the Louvre in 1821. As if aware of the admiration directed toward her (by the sculpted and painted men in the room as well as by the connoisseur), the statuette returns the collector's gaze, somewhat impudently, it seems, and with exaggerated body torsion—which was modified in the original sculpture when its upper and lower parts were readjusted in 1883.

Signature: In ink, lower left: 'h. Daumier'
Jules Dupré (French)(his sale no. 160); Durand-Ruel Gallery; Louisine W. Havemeyer; Donor: Louisine W. Havemeyer
Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Daumier, 1808-1879," 1937.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The H.O. Havemeyer Collection," March 10, 1930–November 2, 1930.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Classicism and Romanticism. French Drawings and Prints," September 15, 1970–November 1, 1970.

Paris. Musée du Louvre. "Dessins Français du Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, de David à Picasso," October 25, 1973–January 7, 1974.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Nineteenth Century French Drawings and Prints," June 23, 1981–August 23, 1981.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Daumier Drawings," February 26, 1993–May 2, 1993.

National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. "Honore Daumier, 1808-1879," June 11, 1999–September 6, 1999.

Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Honore Daumier, 1808-1879," October 5, 1999–January 3, 2000.

Phillips Collection. "Honore Daumier, 1808-1879," February 19, 2000–May 14, 2000.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Drawings and Prints: Selections from the Permanent Collection," October 20, 2008–January 11, 2009.

Royal Academy of Arts. "Daumier: Visions of Paris," October 26, 2013–January 26, 2014.

Maison 370; Ives/Stuffmann 77; Havemeyer Coll. 1993
Léon Rosenthal Daumier : accompagnées de quarante-huit notices. Paris, n.d., fig. no. pl. XLVI, pp. 107-108, ill.

Henri Frantz, Octave Uzanne Daumier and Gavarni. London, 1904, IV D, ill.

Max Deri Die Malerei im XIX Jahrhundert. vols. 1, 2, Berlin, 1920, fig. no. pl. 12 (v. 2), pp. 99-100 (v. 1, ill.

Raymond Escholier Daumier. Paris, 1923, opp. 22, ill.

Erich Klossowski Honoré Daumier. Munich, 1923, cat. no. 377b, fig. no. pl. 141, p. 121, ill.

Eduard Fuchs Der Maler Daumier. 1927, cat. no. 247, fig. no. pl. 247, p. 57.

The H.O. Havemeyer Collection: Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, Sculpture and Objects of Art. Privately published, New York, 1931, pp. 184 (ill.), , ill.

Charles Sterling, Anatole de Monzie, Claude Roger-Marx Daumier: Peintures, aquarelles, dessins. Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris, 1934, cat. no. 90, fig. no. pl. 90, p. 103, ill.

Jean Adhémar "Sur la date des tableaux de Daumier." Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de l'Art Français. 1935, p. 158, ill.

Elise Van Hook, Henri Marceau, David Rosen, Claude Roger-Marx Daumier, 1808-1879. Exh. cat. Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, 1937, cat. no. 22, fig. no. pl. 31, p. 29, ill.

Benno Fleischmann Honoré Daumier, Gemälde, Graphik. Vienna, 1938, fig. no. pl. 57, ill.

Walter Mehring European Drawings from the Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Portfolio of Collotype Reproductions [Vol. 1: Italian Drawings; Vol. 2: Flemish, Dutch, German, Spanish, French, and British drawings; Vol. 3: "New Series": Italian, Flemish, Dutch, German, Spanish, French, and British drawings]. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 3 vols., New York, 1942–44, also N.S., no. 40., cat. no. 43 (vol.2), fig. no. 43, ill.

Jean Adhémar Daumier Dessins et Aquarelles. Paris, [1954], cat. no. 27, ill.

Jean Adhémar Honoré Daumier. Paris, 1954, cat. no. 92, fig. no. 92, p. 122, ill.

K. E. Maison Daumier Drawings. Thomas Yoseloff, 1960, cat. no. 121, fig. no. pl. 121, ill.

Jacob Bean 100 European Drawings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York Graphic Society, New York, 1964, cat. no. 71, fig. no. 71, ill.

K. E. Maison Honoré Daumier: Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings. 2 vols., New York, 1968, cat. no. 370, fig. no. pl. 118, p. 126, ill.

Linda Boyer Gillies "European Drawings in the Havemeyer Collection" Connoisseur. vol. 172, no. 693, November 1969, fig. no. 2, pp. 155, 148, ill.

Linda Boyer Gillies, Colta Ives, Jacob Bean Classicism and Romanticism: French Drawings and Prints, 1800-1860. Ex. cat. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1970, cat. no. 13, p. 3.

Jacob Bean, Linda Boyer Gillies, Cynthia Lambros, Roseline Bacou, Réunion des Musées Nationaux Dessins français du Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York de David à Picasso. 54th Exposition de Cabinet des Dessins Musée du Louvre, 25 October, 1973-7 January 1974. Paris, 1973, cat. no. 20, ill.

Paris-New York. A Continuing Romance. Exh. cat., New York, Wildenstein. New York, 1977, cat. no. 101, ill.

Roger Passeron Daumier témoin de son temps. Fribourg, 1979, cat. no. 178, p. 240.

Louis Provost Honoré Daumier: A Thematic Guide to the Oeuvre. edited by Elizabeth C. Childs, New York, 1989, p. 215.

Louis Provost Honoré Daumier: A Thematic Guide to the Oeuvre. 1989, p. 215.

Christopher Finch Nineteenth-Century Watercolors. New York, London, Paris, 1991, fig. no. 204, pp. 156-157, ill.

Bruce Laughton The Drawings of Daumier and Millet. 1991, fig. no. 10.26, pp. 178-180, ill.

Bruce Laughton The Drawings of Duamier and Millet. New Haven, 1991, pp. 179-180, ill.

Colta Ives, Martin Sonnabend, Margret Stuffmann, Klaus Herding, Judith Wechsler Daumier Drawings. Ex. cat. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1992, cat. no. 77, fig. no. 52, pp. 172-3;50, ill.

Pierre Rosenberg, Louis-Antoine Prat, Bruno Ferté Passion for Drawing: Poussin to Cézanne, Works from the Prat Collection. Exh. cat. Art Services International, Alexandria, Va., Alexandria, Virginia, 2004, fig. no. 3, p. 23, ill.

Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Catherine Lampert, Mr. Michael Pantazzi, Judith Wechsler, Édouard Papet, John Berger, T. J. Clark, Peter Doig, Sarah Lea Daumier (1808-1879): Visions of Paris. Beatrice Gullström, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 2013, cat. no. 72, pp. 42, 132-133, ill.

Claude Keisch, Max Liebermann Haus "Daumier ist ungeheuer!" (Max Liebermann): Gemälde, Zeichnungen, Graphik, Bronzen von Honoré Daumier. Stiftung Brandenburger Tor, Nicolai, Berlin, 2013, pp. 135, 170.